A republic is a form of government under which there is not a hereditary head of state. In a republic, executive power emanates from an impersonal entity: the word 'republic' comes from the Latin res publica which literally means "public thing". In republics, executive power is not the absolute property of any person and therefore cannot beinherited or sold like a royal title.
Types of Republic:
* Republic - France and Turkey.
* Constitutional republic - United States
* Parliamentary republic
* Federal republic - Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Germany, India, Russia and Switzerland.
* Islamic Republic - Countries like Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran.
* Arab Republic - for example, Syria
* People's Republic -Countries like China.
* Democratic Republic – The German Democratic Republic (no longer in existence) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
* Commonwealth - Republic of Poland, and the old Nobility Commonwealth.
* Free state
* red - presidential republics, full presidential system
* green - presidential republics, executive presidency linked to a parliament
* olive -presidential republics, semi-presidential system
* orange - parliamentary republics
* brown - republics whose constitutions grant only a single party the right to govern
Democracy is a form of government in which state-power is held by the majority of citizens within a country. It is derived from the Greek δημοκρατία, "popular government", which was coined from δῆμος (dêmos), "people" andκράτος (krátos), "rule, strength" in the middle of the fifth-fourth century BC to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states, notably Athens following a popular uprising in 508 BC.
* Representative - Representative democracy involves the selection of government officials by the people being represented. It is more properly called a democratic republic.
*Parliamentary - Parliamentary democracy means where government is appointed by parliamentary representatives as opposed to a 'presidential rule' by decree dictatorship.
* Liberal - A Liberal democracy is a representative democracy in which the ability of the elected representatives to exercise decision-making power is subject to the rule of law, and usually moderated by a constitution that emphasizesthe protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals, and which places constraints on the leaders and on the extent to which the will of the majority can be exercised against the rights of minorities.
* Direct: Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens participate in the decision-making personally, contrary to relying on intermediaries or representatives.
Since World War II, democracy has gained widespread acceptance. This map displays the official self identification made by world governments with regard to democracy, as of March 2008. It shows the de jure status of democracy in the world.
Governments selfidentified as democratic
Governments not self identified as democratic: Vatican, Saudi Arabia, Myanmar and Brunei.
A monarchy is a form of government in which supreme power is absolutely or nominally lodged with an individual, who is the head of state, often for life or until abdication, and "is wholly set apart from all other members of the state." The person who heads a monarchyis called a monarch. It was a common form of government in the world during the ancient and medieval times.
There is no clear definition of monarchy. Holding unlimited political power in the state is not the defining characteristic, as many constitutional monarchies such as the United Kingdom and Thailand are considered monarchies. Hereditary rule is often a common characteristic, but...