Abdomen agudo en animales

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Robert Cruz-Artimbulo,

of the Acute Abdomen

DVM, and Robert Wrigley, BVSc, MS

For many years, ultrasonography has been considered to be one of the most valuable imaging techniques for evaluation of the abdominal cavity and its organs. In most cases, abdominal ultrasonography helps obtain information that leads to a definitive diagnosis. Ultrasonography is also valuableto narrow the list of differential diagnoses obtained with other diagnostic techniques. This article discusses the role of ultrasound for the diagnosis of the most common diseases that can produce clinical signs of acute abdominal pain. Abdominal organs that can be evaluated using ultrasound include the liver, biliary system, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, kidney, urinary bladder, uterus, andprostate. Pathologies of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space can be also diagnosed with ultrasonography. Interventional ultrasound techniques are useful to either assist in getting the definitive diagnosis or to treat certain pathologic conditions. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

The most common nate when structure

artifacts in ultrasound Through beaminteracts

are through transartifacts origiby with a fluid-filled

mission and shadowing.


the ultrasound

(Fig 1). The ultrasound

beam is not attenuated

fluids. Rather, beam interacts filled structure intensity

the beam is transmitted. and it is reflected,

Then the ultrasound the fluidof high echoes

with the tissue located underneath producing

that appearas relatively hyperechoic by highly reflective beam is completely

areas. Shadowtissues (Fig 2). to the tis-

ing artifacts are produced The ultrasound

reflected back to the trans-

ducer, such that no ultrasound

beam is transmitted

sues lying beneath the highly reflecting tissue. Because there are no echoes coming back to the transducer this area appears completely Organs locatedunderneath ultrasonography animal patient.4-6 anechoic. highly reflected tissues may not to produce a signal,

be seen at all. The goal of this study is to review the role of in the diagnosis of acute abdomen in the small


cute abdomen medicine. the sudden

is considered

an emergency

in veterinary clinical lethargy, Techniques hepatobiliary

In general, acute abdomen is amedjcal term that onset of abdominal vomiting, diarrhea, pain. Other anorexia,


Hepatobiliary System
for performing an ultrasound examination of the appearsystem and its normal ultrasonographic The hepatic and hypoechoic

signs may be present in addition to abdominal abdominal distention, postural and gait changes, diagnosis assures successful of appropriate treatment ology andultrasonography, of acute abdomen. principles and shock.lJ management

pain, including and prompt


and implementation and in

ance have been well documented.’ normally appears as homogenous The hepatic veins are differentiated portal veins have hyperechoic not. The gallbladder structure producing appears as echogenic a through

parenchyma in nature.738

therapy. Diagnostic

imagingtools, such as radi-

can assist in the diagnosis The causes of acute abdomen

from portal veins because as an anechoic ovoid and is a

walls, while the hepatic veins do transmission artifact. Sediment is difficult to of

the small animal patient have been reviewed already.l-3 The physical reviewed reflected of ultrasonography also have been image is previously by others.+-6 abdominal Anultrasound organs.

can be visualized

material within the gallbladder Extension

formed when the ultrasound by the different beam can be reflected,

waves directed into the patient are The ultrasound depending beam or transmitted,

normal finding in dogs and cats. Hepatomegaly diagnose with ultrasound. liver ventral to the stomach hepatomegaly. echogenicity liver should echogenicity)...
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