Continuous manufacturing of a light-textured foamed fresh cheese by dispersion of a gas phase. II. Inﬂuence of formulation
´ ´ Ch. Vial a, Rajeev K. Thakur a, A. Perez Quintans
, G. Djelveh
, L. Picgirard
´ ´ Laboratoire de Genie Chimique et Biochimique, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24avenue des Landais, BP 206, F-63174 Aubiere Cedex, France b ADIV, 2 rue Chappe, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France Received 25 January 2005; accepted 5 June 2005 Available online 8 August 2005
Abstract The continuous process developed in ‘‘Part I. Inﬂuence of process parameters’’ was used to investigate the inﬂuence of ingredients on the manufacturing of a light-textured foamed fresh cheese. Therole of ingredients was analyzed using overrun, stability of the dispersed gas phase over time, cheese texture and visual aspect as indicators. Using cream and skim milk as a reference, fresh cheese formulation has been modiﬁed by replacing cream with milk fat fractions or incorporating whey protein concentrates (WPC) and emulsiﬁers, such as phospholipids (PhL) and mono–diglycerides (MDG).Experiments have shown that the foamability and the stability are enhanced by WPC addition and high-melting point fat fractions, but also that the simultaneous addition of WPC and PhL provides softer textures, whereas MDG present always a negative impact on foamability. The best results are obtained when WPC are incorporated before curd homogenization. Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:Fresh cheese; Continuous process; Foamability; Foam stability; Formulation; Food processing; Gas dispersion; Texture
1. Introduction In spite of the large number of cheese varieties (see, e.g., Olson, 1995), cheese industry is continuously looking for new technologies and ingredients in order to improve shelf-life, appearance, body, texture, mouthfeel and taste by using innovative ingredientsand/or technologies. As an illustration, ultraﬁltration (UF) has been used since the 70s as a key technology for improving cheese characteristics (Maubois, Mocquot, & Vassal, 1975; Shell, 1986). This operation has enabled the integration of whey proteins into the cheese matrix along with the normal casein and fat components in order to improve cheese nutrient value as well as the economiceﬀectiveness of cheese production (Hinrichs, 2001).
Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 473405055; fax: +33 473407829. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (G. Djelveh).
Nevertheless, it appears clearly that innovative technologies have still to be found, not only for improving again cheese yield, but also for changing cheese texture, ﬂavour, ripening and melting. In a previous work, aprocess for the continuous manufacturing of a more spoonable and spreadable fresh acid cheese was suggested and developed by Vial, Thakur, Djelveh, and Picgirard (2005). By dispersing a gas phase under high-shear conditions, the presence of gas was shown to aﬀect both the mechanical properties (consistency, ﬁrmness, etc.) and the visual aspect of the raw material, which results in a lighter texture,an increased spreadability, as well as a more homogeneous appearance. This could lead to sensory and marketing advantages over conventional acid fresh cheeses. In their work, the ﬁnal product had to contain at least 15% (v/v) of gas (18% overrun) with moisture between 60% and 70% (w/w); additionally, it had to be stable for more than 21 days, but without needing the addition of non-dairystabilizers (gelatin,
0260-8774/$ - see front matter Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.06.016
Ch. Vial et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 77 (2006) 14–26
Nomenclature ai aij AMF AS d32 DM Eﬀ FDM FPM G G0 G0m L MDG N O PhL tan(d) main eﬀect of parameter xi interaction between parameters xi and xj anhydrous milk fat absolute stability of the gas phase...