Aditivos para cementacion

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Cementing Technology Manual

Section 14 Gas Migration Materials

Section 14

Gas Migration Materials
Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 14-3 Cal-Seal™ Additive....................................................................................................................... 14-4 GasStop™ Additive ....................................................................................................................... 14-5 GasStop HT™ Additive ................................................................................................................. 14-6 GasStop EXP™ Additive............................................................................................................... 14-7 LAP-1™ Additive ........................................................................................................................... 14-8 LATEX 2000™ Cement Additive ................................................................................................... 14-9 Stabilizer 434B™ Latex Stabilizer............................................................................................... 14-10 Stabilizer 434C™ Surfactant for Latex Cement ........................................................................... 14-11 SUPER CBL™ Cement Additive ................................................................................................. 14-12 SUPER CBL EXP™ CementAdditive......................................................................................... 14-13

February 2003

14-1

Section 14 Gas Migration Materials

Cementing Technology Manual Notes

14-2

February 2003

Cementing Technology Manual

Section 14 Gas Migration Materials

Section 14

Gas Migration Materials
Introduction
The most widely accepted cause of gas migration through the unset cement column is the inability to maintainoverbalance pressure while the cement slurry is in a gelled phase, allowing gas percolation to form a gas channel. Depending on the calculated gas flow potential factor (GFP), three main categories of additives are available to control or reduce gas migration. These additives should be considered when the GFP of the well with the required slurry design is such that the transition time and the “zero geltime” cannot be adjusted by density changes or dispersants to accommodate for the gas flow problem. The first category, fluid-loss control, can take care of most minor and some moderate GFP values. These additives include the HALAD® family of Halliburton additives, the latex additives, and GasStop additive. The second category includes additives, such as CalSeal gypsum, that give a cement slurrythixotropic properties. Thixotropic additives can function well in the moderate GFP range. The third category, expansive additives, can be broken down into two subgroups; plastic-state and post-set expansion additives. The plastic-state additives expand the volume occupied by the slurry in the event of volume losses by fluid loss after it is placed but before it has completed the transition time.These include GasStop, GasStop HT, GasStop EXP, SUPER CBL, and SUPER CBL EXP additives. Foam cement and SUPER CBL cement additive are most appropriate for a severe GFP. Post-set expansion additives are more suited to long-term gas migration problems that can exist because of poor displacement of drilling fluids or excessive mud-filter cake across the formation. Postset expansion additives includethe MicroBond series of additives. Depending on the temperature range, three of these additives are available: MicroBond, MicroBond M, and MicroBond HT additives. While several categories of additives are available to fight gas migration problems, several mechanisms often exist by which gas migration may occur in a given well. For that reason, combinations of any of these additives are often...
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