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Adverbs and Adverbs of Frequency


An adverb can modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb.  The ones we will study answer one of these questions about the verb in the sentence:
When did they leave?  They left last week.
How did they travel from here to Tallahassee?  They traveled by car.
How does he drive?   He drives safely sometimes. Sometimes he drives fast.

Formation of Adverbs

1. Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the adjective.
• loud = loudly 
• careless = carlessly 
• safe = safely
2. Adjectives that end in consonant + y change the "y" to "i" and add -ly for the adverb form.
• lazy = lazily
• crazy = crazily
• angry = angrily
3. Adjectives that end in-ic add -ally for the adverb form.
• pessimistic = pessimistically 
• optimistic = optimistically
• enthusiastic = enthusiastically 

Irregular Adverbs

1. These irregular adverbs have the same form as adjectives and adverbs.
|adjective  |adverb  |adjective  |adverb |
|fast  |fast  |early  |early |
|hard  |hard  |late  |late  |

2. The adjective form for "good" is "well", but sometimes "well" can be used as an adjective that means "healthy."
Example: John had the flu last week, but today he is well (healthy). 
3. The word "not" and words that tell time and place are also adverbs.
• today 
• soon • there 
• not 
• here 
• tomorrow 
• early
Exercise 1
Instructions:  Write the correct ADVERB form of these adjectives. 
1. enthusiastic
2. good 
3. late
4. early
5. beautiful
6. hard
7. slow
8. specific
9. bad
10. dangerous
11. crazy
12. angry-----------------------

Placement of adverbs

Adverbs in Negative Sentences and Questions
In a question, adverbs cannot go between the auxiliary verb and the subject. In a negative sentence adverbs cannot go between the auxiliary and "not".
|Correct: |Incorrect:|
|Did you give it to him secretly? |Did you give secretly it to him? |
|No, I did not give it to him secretly. |No, I did secretly not give it to him. |

In a negative sentences and in questions, adverbs are usually NOT at the beginning of the sentence.Examples:
|Correct: |Incorrect: |
|Does she speak quickly? |Quickly does she speak? |
|No, she doesn't speak quickly. |No, quickly she does not speak.|

Exercise 2:
Instructions:  Rewrite the sentences using the adverb in parentheses.
1. She sang the song. (quietly)
2. Does she speak German? (very well)
3. They finished that project. (quickly)
4. Will you answer this question? (carefully)
5. He sent her a box of chocolates. (secretly)
6. They drew the plans for their new home. (enthusiastically)
7. She doesn't speak English. (badly) 
Exercise 3:
Instructions:  Circle the adverbs. 
1.  Sometimes I like to study with music on, but today I cannot.  I need to concentrate carefully because I have a midterm exam in English on Friday.
2. Leave quickly.  The the tornado is coming this way and we need to find shelter immediately.
3. He teaches very well, but he speaks very loudly in the classroom.  I usually come out of class...
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