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E. LoHoughton PW Carpenter

Aerodynamics for Engineering Students

Frontispiece (see overleaf)

Aircraft wake (photo courtesy of Cessna Aircraft Company). This photograph first appeared in the Gallery of Fluid Motion, Physics of Fluids (published by the American Institute of Physics), Vol. 5, No. 9, Sept. 1993, p. S5, and was submitted by Professor Hiroshi Higuchi(Syracuse University). It shows the wake created by a Cessna Citation VI flown immediately above the fog bank over Lake Tahoe at approximately 313 km/h. A r r f altitude was about icat 122 m above the lake, and its mass was approximately 8400 kg. The downwash caused the trailing vortices to descend over the fog layer and disturb it to make the flow . field in the wake visible. The photograph wastaken by P Bowen for the Cessna Aircraft Company f o the tail rm gunner’s position in a B-25flying slightly above and ahead of the Cessna.

Aerodynamics for Engineering Students
Fifth Edition

E.L. Houghton and P.W. Carpenter
Professor of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Warwick


Butterworth-Heinemann An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Rd, Burlington MA 01803 First published in Great Britain 1960 Fourth edition published in 1993 by Edward Arnold Fifth edition published by Butterworth-Heinemann 2003 Copyright 02003, E.L. Houghton and P.W. Carpenter. All rights reserved The right of E.L. Houghton and P.W.Carpenter to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of thecopyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1T 4LP. Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher
British Library Cataloguing inPublication Data Houghton, E.L. (Edward Lewis) Aerodynamics for engineering students. - 5th ed. 1 Aerodynamics I Title I1 Carpenter, P.W. 629.1’323 Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Houghton, E.L. (Edward Lewis) Aerodynamics for engineering students / E.L. Houghton and P.W. Carpenter. - 5th ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0 7506 5111 3 1 Aerodynamics 2 Airplanes-Design andconstruction I Carpenter, P.W. (Peter William), 1942- I1 Title. TL570 .H587 2002 629.132’3-dc21 2002029945

ISBN 0 7506 5111 3

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Preface 1 Basic concepts and defdtions Preamble 1.1 Units and dimensions 1.1.1 Fundamental dimensions and units 1.1.2 Fractions and multiples 1.1.3 Units of otherphysical quantities 1.1.4 Imperial units 1.2 Relevant properties 1.2.1 Forms of matter 1.2.2 Fluids 1.2.3 Pressure 1.2.4 Temperature 1.2.5 Density 1.2.6 Viscosity 1.2.7 Speed of sound and bulk elasticity 1.2.8 Thermodynamic properties 1.3 Aeronautical definitions 1.3.1 Wing geometry 1.3.2 Aerofoil geometry 1.4 Dimensional analysis 1.4.1 Fundamental principles 1.4.2 Dimensional analysis applied toaerodynamic force 1.5 Basic aerodynamics 1.5.1 Aerodynamic force and moment 1.5.2 Force and moment coefficients 1.5.3 Pressure distribution on an aerofoil 1S.4 Pitching moment 1.5.5 Types of drag 1.5.6 Estimation of the coefficients of lift, drag and pitching moment from the pressure distribution 1.5.7 Induced drag 1.5.8 Lift-dependent drag 1S.9 Aerofoil characteristics Exercises


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