Agroecology

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Agroecology: A Review from a Global-Change Perspective
ANNUAL REVIEWS

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Annu. Rev. Environ. Resourc. 2011.36:193-222. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by Universidad De Guanajuato on 08/14/12. For personal use only.

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Thomas P. Tomich,1,2,3,4 Sonja Brodt,3,4 Howard Ferris,5 Ryan Galt,1 William R. Horwath,6 Ermias Kebreab,7 Johan H.J. Leveau,8 Daniel Liptzin,3,4 Mark Lubell,2 Pierre Merel,9 Richard Michelmore,10,11,12,13 Todd Rosenstock,3,4 Kate Scow,3,6 Johan Six,13 Neal Williams,14 and Louie Yang14
1

Department of Human and Community Development, 2 Department of Environmental Scienceand Policy, 3 Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis, 4 UC Statewide Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, 5 Department of Nematology, 6 Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, 7 Department of Animal Science, 8 Department of Plant Pathology, 9 Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 10 Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, 11 Department ofMicrobiology and Immunology, 12 Genome Center, 13 Department of Plant Sciences, 14 Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California 95616; email: tptomich@ucdavis.edu, sbbrodt@ucdavis.edu, hferris@ucdavis.edu, regalt@ucdavis.edu, wrhorwath@ucdavis.edu, ekebreab@ucdavis.edu, jleveau@ucdavis.edu, liptzin@ucdavis.edu, mnlubell@ucdavis.edu, prmerel@ucdavis.edu,rwmichelmore@ucdavis.edu, trosenstock@ucdavis.edu, kmscow@ucdavis.edu, jwsix@ucdavis.edu, nmwilliams@ucdavis.edu, lhyang@ucdavis.edu

Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 2011. 36:193–222 First published online as a Review in Advance on August 3, 2011 The Annual Review of Environment and Resources is online at environ.annualreviews.org This article’s doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-012110-121302 Copyright c 2011 by Annual Reviews.All rights reserved 1543-5938/11/1121-0193$20.00

Keywords
agrobiodiversity, agriculture, coupled social-ecological systems, human-environment interactions, nutrient cycling, resilience

Abstract
This review by a multidisciplinary team maps key components and emerging connections within the intellectual landscape of agroecology. We attempt to extend and preview agroecology as a disciplinein which agriculture can be conceptualized within the context of global change and studied as a coupled system involving a wide range of social and natural processes. This intrinsic coupling, combined with powerful emerging drivers of change, presents challenges for the practice of agroecology and agriculture itself, as well as providing the framework for some of the most innovative research areasand the greatest potential for innovation for a sustainable future in agriculture. The objective of this review is to identify forward-looking scientific questions to enhance the relevance of agroecology for the key challenges of mitigating environmental impacts of agriculture while dramatically increasing global food production, improving livelihoods, and thereby reducing chronic hunger andmalnutrition over the coming decades.

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Contents
1. REFRAMING THE SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE OF AGROECOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1. Approaches and Definitions of Agroecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2. Connecting Agricultural Sciences and Environmental Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3. Connecting Agricultural Sciences and Social Sciences . . . . .1.4. Agroecosystem Dynamics and Resilience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. THE AGROECOLOGICAL NEXUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1. Agricultural Production Practices and Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2. Agrobiodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3. Agricultural Nutrient Inputs, Outputs, and Pollution . . . . . . . . . . 2.4. Livestock Production...
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