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Preface
The Laws of Chess cannot cover all possible situations that may arise during a game, nor can they regulate all administrative questions. Where cases are not precisely regulated by an Article of the Laws, it should be possible to reach a correct decision by studying analogous situations which are discussed in the Laws. The Laws assume that arbiters have the necessary competence, soundjudgement and absolute objectivity. Too detailed a rule might deprive the arbiter of his freedom of judgement and thus prevent him from finding the solution to a problem dictated by fairness, logic and special factors.
FIDE appeals to all chess players and federations to accept this view.
A member federation is free to introduce more detailed rules provided they:
a. do not conflict in any way withthe official FIDE Laws of Chess, and
b. are limited to the territory of the federation concerned, and
c. are not valid for any FIDE match, championship or qualifying event, or for a FIDE title or rating tournament.

BASIC RULES OF PLAY
Article 1: The nature and objectives of the game of chess
1.1 The game of chess is played between two opponents who move their pieces alternately ona square board called a ‘chessboard’. The player with the white pieces commences the game. A player is said to ‘have the move’, when his opponent’s move has been ‘made’. (See Article 6.7)
1.2 The objective of each player is to place the opponent’s king ‘under attack’ in such a way that the opponent has no legal move. The player who achieves this goal is said to have ‘checkmated’ theopponent’s king and to have won the game. Leaving one’s own king under attack, exposing one’s own king to attack and also ’capturing’ the opponent’s king are not allowed. The opponent whose king has been checkmated has lost the game.
1.3 If the position is such that neither player can possibly checkmate, the game is drawn.

Article 2: The initial position of the pieces on the chessboard
2.1The chessboard is composed of an 8 x 8 grid of 64 equal squares alternately light (the ‘white’ squares) and dark (the ‘black’ squares).
The chessboard is placed between the players in such a way that the near corner square to the right of the player is white.
2.2 At the beginning of the game one player has 16 light-coloured pieces (the ‘white’ pieces); the other has 16dark-coloured pieces (the ‘black’ pieces).
These pieces are as follows:
A white king, usually indicated by the symbol
A white queen, usually indicated by the symbol
Two white rooks, usually indicated by the symbol
Two white bishops, usually indicated by the symbol
Two white knights, usually indicated by the symbol
Eight white pawns, usually indicated by the symbol
A black king, usuallyindicated by the symbol
A black queen, usually indicated by the symbol
Two black rooks, usually indicated by the symbol
Two black bishops, usually indicated by the symbol
Two black knights, usually indicated by the symbol
Eight black pawns, usually indicated by the symbol

2.3 The initial position of the pieces on the chessboard is as follows:


2.4 The eight verticalcolumns of squares are called ‘files’. The eight horizontal rows of squares are called ‘ranks’. A straight line of squares of the same colour, running from one edge of the board to an adjacent edge, is called a ‘diagonal’.
Article 3: The moves of the pieces
3.1 It is not permitted to move a piece to a square occupied by a piece of the same colour. If a piece moves to a square occupied by anopponent’s piece the latter is captured and removed from the chessboard as part of the same move. A piece is said to attack an opponent’s piece if the piece could make a capture on that square according to the Articles 3.2 to 3.8.
A piece is considered to attack a square, even if such a piece is constrained from moving to that square because it would then leave or place the king of its own...
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