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Gerencia del alcande del proyecto
Derivado del griego “skopos” y del italiano scopo que significa blanco y objetivo, Alcance ha sido utilizado en navegación náutica para denotar la longitud del cable de fondeo de un barco anclado el cual demarca el punto límite en el cual un barco puede fondear. (Webster’s
Third International Dictionary
Alcance especifica y describe los limites en los quelos recursos pueden ser empleados en un proyecto, cuyo objetivo es producir un resultado o resultados A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) – La tercera edición define la gerencia del alcance como el “ trabajo que se debe realizar para sacar un producto, servicio, o resultado con una características y funciones especificas (PMI 2004). El proceso completo ha sidodescrito como el “resumen de todas los entregables requeridos como parte del proyecto” (Kerzner 2006). Definir y manejar el Alcance del proyecto

The overall process has
been described as the “summation of all
deliverables required as part of the
project” “Defining and
managing the project scope influences
the project’s overall success” (PMI
2004). Effective scope management is
consideredessential to project success
(Dekkers and Forselius 2007,
Frohnhoefer 2003, Peters and Homer,
Project Scope Management is a set of processes. A process is a “set of interrelated
actions and activities performed to achieve a specified set of products, results, or
services” (PMI 2004).
Five processes are included in Project Scope Management:
Scope Planning is the first part of theoverall project management plan
processes, and is used in developing the project scope management plan. It
can be broadly defined, or very detailed in accordance with project necessity
(Dinsmore and Cabanis-Brewin 2006). It describes the what, where, and how
of the deliverable(s) and should be written keeping the customer or user as
audience in mind, clearly delineating the point where the projectbegins and
ends (Martin 2005, Martin and Tate 2000). Environmental and organizational
factors are taken into account, as well as stakeholder input (Sutterfield, Friday-
Stroud and Shivers-Blackwell 2006). Utilizing expert opinion, options
identification, plus product and stakeholder analysis, a document is derived,
showing how scope will be defined, verified, and controlled (Thatcher andSarvis 1990).
Scope Definition creates a project scope statement "to gain an appropriate
consent among all the stakeholders taking charge of the scope definition of the
project", to confirm complementary objectives (Sanz Perez and Bucero Torres
2004). Decisions made at this time impact success at each successive project
stage (Smith 1990). A clear statement of the intended product or servicethat
is included within the project and expected by the stakeholders helps belay
delays by establishing a set of clear goals and objectives, serving as a sort of
project map to keep the project on track (Heldman, Baca and Jansen 2005, Lo
Valvo 2004, Monaghan 1990). The definition process produces a formal
declaration of the boundaries of the project, what it is and is not; what is
includedand what is excluded (Peters and Homer 1997). Statements about
what is NOT included within the scope sometimes are needed as part of the
assumptions to avoid misinterpretation of the scope (O’Connor 2001). This
document can “later be used to control and manage scope at both the project
and subproject levels” (Thompson 1996), and as a stakeholder
communication tool (Burek 2006). The definitionprocess feeds back into the
scope management plan and also sets the stage for the creation of the work
breakdown structure (WBS) (Hamburger 1996, Woolshlager 1986).
A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) creates a hierarchical breakdown of
activities and end products (deliverables), thereby defining and organizing the
project work that is to be completed (Richman 2006). It decomposes, or
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