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T HE L INUX O PERATING S Y S T E M
William Stallings
This document is an extract from Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, Fifth Edition Prentice Hall, 2005, ISBN 0-13-147954-7

Copyright 2005 William Stallings

T ABLE

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CONTENTS

2.8 LINUX................................................................................................................................3 History............................................................................................................................3 Modular Structure ..........................................................................................................4 Kernel Components........................................................................................................6 4.6 LINUXPROCESS AND THREAD MANAGEMENT ...................................................11 Linux Tasks..................................................................................................................11 Linux Threads ..............................................................................................................12 6.8 LINUX KERNEL CONCURRENCYMECHANISMS...................................................15 Atomic Operations .......................................................................................................15 Spinlocks......................................................................................................................17 Basic Spinlocks................................................................................................18Reader-Writer Spinlock ...................................................................................19 Semaphores ..................................................................................................................20 Binary and Counting Semaphores....................................................................20 Reader-WriterSemaphores..............................................................................22 Barriers.........................................................................................................................22 8.4 LINUX MEMORY MANAGEMENT .............................................................................25 Linux Virtual Memory.................................................................................................25Virtual Memory Addressing ............................................................................25 Page Allocation................................................................................................26 Page Replacement Algorithm ..........................................................................26 Kernel Memory Allocation..........................................................................................26 10.3 LINUX SCHEDULING..................................................................................................28 Real-Time Scheduling..................................................................................................28 Non-Real-Time Scheduling .........................................................................................29Calculating Priorities and Timeslices ..............................................................31 Relationship to Real-Time Tasks.....................................................................31 11.9 LINUX I/O......................................................................................................................33 Disk Scheduling...........................................................................................................33 The Elevator Scheduler....................................................................................33 Deadline Scheduler ..........................................................................................34 Anticipatory I/O Scheduler ..............................................................................35...
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