India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also in other Indian languages), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengalonthe east, India has a coastline of 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi). It is bordered by Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Burma to the east. India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka, and the Maldives in the Indian Ocean.
India is the most populous democracy in the world. For most of the years since independence, the federalgovernment has been led by the Indian National Congress (INC). Politics in the states have been dominated by several national parties including the INC, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) and various regional parties. From 1950 to 1990, barring two brief periods, the INC enjoyed a parliamentary majority. The INC was out of power between 1977 and1980, when the Janata Party won the election owing to public discontent with thestate of emergency declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In 1989, a Janata Dal-ledNational Front coalition in alliance with the Left Front coalition won the elections but managed to stay in power for only two years. As the 1991 elections gave no political party a majority, the INC formed a minoritygovernment under Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao and was able to complete its five-year term.
The years 1996–1998 were a period of turmoil in the federal government with several short-lived alliances holding sway. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996, followed by the United Front coalition that excluded both the BJP and the INC. In 1998, the BJP formed the National DemocraticAlliance (NDA) with several other parties and became the first non-Congress government to complete a full five-year term. In the2004 Indian elections, the INC won the largest number of Lok Sabha seats and formed a government with a coalition called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), supported by various Left-leaning parties and members opposed to the BJP. The UPA again came into power inthe2009 general election; however, the representation of the Left leaning parties within the coalition has significantly reduced. Manmohan Singhbecame the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1962 to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term.
355 hab/km² of density
New Delhi was laid out to the south ofthe Old Citywhich was constructed by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. However, New Delhi overlays the site ofseven ancient cities and hence includes many historic monuments like the Jantar Mantar and the Lodhi Gardens.
Much of New Delhi was planned by Edwin Lutyensand Herbert Baker, the former of whom was a leading 20th century British architect, and contracted to Sir Sobha Singh. Lutyens first visitedDelhi in 1912, and construction really began afterWorld War I and was completed by 1931, when the city later dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi" was inaugurated. Lutyens laid out the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations.
|Ciudad |Estado |Población|
|Bombay |Maharashtra |21,347,412 |
|Delhi |Delhi |18,639,762 |
|Calcuta |Bengala Occidental |15,414,859 |