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Part 14: Pediatric Advanced Life Support
2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for CardiopulmonaryResuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care
Monica E. Kleinman, Chair; Leon Chameides; Stephen M. Schexnayder; Ricardo A. Samson; Mary Fran Hazinski; Dianne L. Atkins; Marc D. Berg; Allan R. de Caen; Ericka L. Fink; Eugene B. Freid; Robert W. Hickey; Bradley S. Marino; Vinay M. Nadkarni; Lester T. Proctor; Faiqa A. Qureshi; Kennith Sartorelli; Alexis Topjian; Elise W. van der Jagt; Arno L. Zaritsky
ncontrast to adults, cardiac arrest in infants and children does not usually result from a primary cardiac cause. More often it is the terminal result of progressive respiratory failure or shock, also called an asphyxial arrest. Asphyxia begins with a variable period of systemic hypoxemia, hypercapnea, and acidosis, progresses to bradycardia and hypotension, and culminates with cardiac arrest.1Another mechanism of cardiac arrest, ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT), is the initial cardiac rhythm in approximately 5% to 15% of pediatric in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests;2–9 it is reported in up to 27% of pediatric in-hospital arrests at some point during the resuscitation.6 The incidence of VF/ pulseless VT cardiac arrest rises with age.2,4Increasing evidence suggests that sudden unexpected death in young people can be associated with genetic abnormalities in myocyte ion channels resulting in abnormalities in ion flow (see “Sudden Unexplained Deaths,” below). Since 2010 marks the 50th anniversary of the introduction of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR),10 it seems appropriate to review the progressive improvement in outcome ofpediatric resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Survival from in-hospital cardiac arrest in infants and children in the 1980s was around 9%.11,12 Approximately 20 years later, that figure had increased to 17%,13,14 and by 2006, to 27%.15–17 In contrast to those favorable results from in-hospital cardiac arrest, overall survival to discharge from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in infants and children hasnot changed substantially in 20 years and remains at about 6% (3% for infants and 9% for children and adolescents).7,9 It is unclear why the improvement in outcome from in-hospital cardiac arrest has occurred, although earlier recognition and management of at-risk patients on general inpatient units and more aggressive implementation of evidence-based resuscitation guidelines may have played a...