Anábasis: selección de textos del libro iv, capítulo iv

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ANÁBASIS LIBRO IV

La expedición llega al país de los carducos, con quienes tienen que enfrentarse sufriendo muchas bajas (1) antes de llegar a la frontera de Armenia (2). Cruzan el río Centrites gracias a una genial estrategia de Jenofonte, y una vez en aquel país, se enfrentan con Orontas y Tiribazo, sátrapas de Armenia Oriental y Occidental respectivamente (3). El invierno se recrudece,creando muchos problemas a los soldados (4). Después de muchas penalidades, los griegos llegan a un pueblo donde reciben un recibimiento hospitalario (5). Enfrentamientos con los fasianos, cálibes y taocos, conquista de la montaña (6). Alegría al divisar el Mar Negro (7). Antes de llegar a la colonia griega de Trapezunte en el Mar Negro, Jenofonte y sus guerreros cruzan el territorio de los macrones,con quienes firman un pacto, y de los colcos, que son derrotados (8).

Traduce los textos; analiza sintáctica o morfológicamente las palabras u oraciones subrayadas (si el texto es breve, analízalo entero); di dos palabras al menos que provengan etimológicamente de las palabras en negrita.

Selección de textos del primer capítulo:

Imposible cruzar el Tigris:
1.2 ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀφίκοντο ἔνθα ὁμὲν Τίγρης ποταμὸς παντάπασιν ἄπορος ἦν διὰ τὸ βάθος καὶ μέγεθος͵ πάροδος δὲ οὐκ ἦν͵ ἀλλὰ τὰ Καρδούχεια ὄρη ἀπότομα ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ τοῦ ποταμοῦ ἐκρέματο͵ ἐδόκει δὴ τοῖς στρατηγοῖς διὰ τῶν ὀρέων πορευτέον εἶναι.

[2] When the Greeks finally reached a point where the Tigris river was quite impassable by reason of its depth and width, and where there was no passage-way alongside the river, since theCarduchian mountains hung sheer and close above it, the generals were forced to the conclusion that they must make their way through the mountains.

Manera de invadir a los Carducos:
1.4 τὴν δ΄ εἰς τοὺς Καρδούχους ἐμβολὴν ὧδε ποιοῦνται͵ ἅμα μὲν λαθεῖν πειρώμενοι͵ ἅμα δὲ φθάσαι πρὶν τοὺς πολεμίους καταλαβεῖν τὰ ἄκρα.

[4] Now they conducted their invasion of the country of the Carduchians inthe following way, since they were seeking not only to escape observation, but at the same time to reach the heights before the enemy could take possession of them.

Quisíforo y Jenofonte están al mando:
1.6 ἔνθα δὴ Χειρίσοφος μὲν ἡγεῖτο τοῦ στρατεύματος λαβὼν τὸ ἀμφ΄ αὑτὸν καὶ τοὺς γυμνῆτας πάντας͵ Ξενοφῶν δὲ σὺν τοῖς ὀπισθοφύλαξιν ὁπλίταις εἵπετο οὐδένα ἔχων γυμνῆτα· οὐδεὶς γὰρ κίνδυνος ἐδόκειεἶναι μή τις ἄνω πορευομένων ἐκ τοῦ ὄπισθεν ἐπίσποιτο.

[6] Here Cheirisophus, with his own division and all the light-armed troops, led the van, while Xenophon followed behind with the hoplites of the rearguard, but without any light troops at all; for there seemed to be no danger of any pursuit from behind while they were proceeding uphill.1

1 It will be remembered that light troops hadproved more serviceable than hoplites in the recent skirmishes with the Persians.

Quisíforo logra llegar a la cima:
1.7 καὶ ἐπὶ μὲν τὸ ἄκρον ἀναβαίνει Χειρίσοφος πρίν τινας αἰσθέσθαι τῶν πολεμίων· ἔπειτα δ΄ ὑφηγεῖτο· ἐφείπετο δὲ ἀεὶ τὸ ὑπερβάλλον τοῦ στρατεύματος εἰς τὰς κώμας τὰς ἐν τοῖς ἄγκεσί τε καὶ μυχοῖς τῶν ὀρέων.

[7] And Cheirisophus reached the summit of the pass before any of theenemy perceived him; then he led on slowly, and each division of the army as it passed over the summit followed along to the villages which lay in the hollows and nooks of the mountains.

Los Carducos se las piran:
1.8 ἔνθα δὴ οἱ μὲν Καρδοῦχοι ἐκλιπόντες τὰς οἰκίας ἔχοντες καὶ γυναῖκας καὶ παῖδας ἔφευγον ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη. τὰ δὲ ἐπιτήδεια πολλὰ ἦν λαμβάνειν͵ ἦσαν δὲ καὶ χαλκώμασι παμπόλλοιςκατεσκευασμέναι αἱ οἰκίαι...

[8] Then it was that the Carduchians abandoned their houses and fled to the mountains with their wives and children. As for provisions, there was an abundance for the Greeks to take, and the houses were also supplied with bronze vessels in great numbers;

Los griegos aprovechan la situación, pero intentan quedar bien:
1.9 τὰ μέντοι ἐπιτήδεια ὅτῳ τις ἐπιτυγχάνοι ἐλάμβανεν·...
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