Expert Systems with Applications 37 (2010) 3024–3035
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Expert Systems with Applications
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/eswa
An intelligent trafﬁc management expert system with RFID technology
Department of Information Management, LungHwa University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC
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a b s t ra c t
This paper presents an intelligent trafﬁc management expert system with RFID technology. The system provides both practically important trafﬁc data collection and control information and can trace criminal or illegal vehicles such as stolen cars or vehicles that evade tickets, tolls or vehicle taxes. The system architecture consists of an RFID reader, a passive tag, a personal computer, apair of infrared sensors, and a high-speed server with a database system. Based on RFID technology, the system collects and calculates average speed and average ﬂow information on each road of a district area in a city. It then transmits the messages from all the congested roads in a district area to the server in the district center via a communication program. Through a ﬂooding algorithm, eachserver in a district center exchanges and updates information with all neighbor servers in other district centers so all that the servers in various district centers can get all the latest congestion messages in a city. Therefore, a dynamic navigation system can ﬁnd the shortest path that avoids congested roads. Meanwhile, we compare three types of tags for choosing a better solution for e-plates inthe future. We also adopt infrared sensors for detecting cars that do not have a tag. Ó 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Radio frequency identiﬁcation Passive tags Intelligent trafﬁc management Shortest path
1. Introduction Trafﬁc management poses many critical challenges in most modern cities, including congestion, trafﬁc violations, car theft, and illegal vehicles. Duringthe past few years, researchers have used GPS, radar sensors, or digital cameras to measure average car speed and maximum ﬂow on a road in order to determine whether a driver is over the speed limit or to provide trafﬁc information to remind drivers to avoid congestion. However, these systems do not systematically collect information to be used in a dynamic trafﬁc guidance system to solve trafﬁccongestion. Additionally, these approaches cannot identify a car’s basic data, and therefore cannot solve the aforementioned problems. In 2003, Wal-Mart ﬁrst instructed one of its suppliers to start using radio frequency identiﬁcation (RFID) for managing its supplies (RFID Journal, 2003). Next, the US Department of Defense (DoD) announced a similar RFID mandate for its suppliers in 2004 (Wyld,2006). With the backing of retail and military giants, RFID is a growing market that is becoming widely important. The widespread use of RFID can automatically track pallets, cases, individual products, and reusable assets such as bins and containers throughout the supply chain. Chao, Yang, and Jen (2007) reviewed the history of RFID in supply chain management, the supermarket
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checkout process, and private issues. They wrote that RFID global sales are expected to reach US$70 billion by 2008. Tajima (2007) developed a theory of how RFID can be used in supply chain management to sustain a competitive advantage. Under the theory, he developed fourpropositions. Through them we can see that RFID technology has strategic competitive value. He mentioned 15 beneﬁts that have been realized and divided them into two parts, throughout the supply chain (speciﬁcally, reduced shrinkage, reduced material handling, increased data accuracy, faster exception management, and improved information sharing) and major supply chain participants (speciﬁcally,...
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