posteriorly, connecting the iliac crests, will
pass through what vertebral level?
2. Why is the line connecting the iliac crests
clini-cally important?3. What are the lay terms for the following
10. Which vertebral ligament connects
11. How can the back muscles be grouped
12.Which of the back muscles are
innervated by dorsal primary rami of spinal
4. Two laminae fuse to form what vertebral
13. What are thethree major groups of
erector spinae muscles?
14. What important artery passes through
the trans-verse foramina of C1-C6 and
appears in the sub-occipital triangle?
5. What are thecraniovertebral joints?
6. Most herniated intervertebral discs occur
at which vertebral levels?
15. How are the 31 pairs of spinal nerves
7. What embryonic structure givesrise to the
nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc?
16. Each peripheral nerve arising from the
spinal cord may contain hundreds of three
types of axons. What are these types of
axons?8. A herniated disc at the L4-L5 level that
impinges on a spinal nerve root will most
likely involve components of which spinal
17. What is the term for the region of skininnervated by cutaneous fi bers from a single
spinal cord segment?
9. Which vertebral joint allows for turning
the head side-to-side, to indicate “no”?
18. Where is CSF found?
19. What arteriesrun the length of the spinal
cord, and where are they situated?
20. What portion of the embryonic somite
gives rise to the cartilaginous precursor of
the axial skeleton?
21. What is acommon neural tube defect
that leads to incomplete development of the
22. What ectodermal derivative gives rise to
the central nervous system (brain and spinal