Anthropologia

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Study Guide for Exam – Ch 2.
* Biological Anthro uses scientific method (p.15 + Lecture)
* Great Chain of Being (lecture)
* The Early Thinkers – Ussher, Linnaeus, Cuvier, Lamark, Hutton, Lyell, Malthus (pgs 16-19 + Lecture)
* The Darwinian Revolution - theory of evolution, species don’t overpopulate, species show variation in traits, some variations work better whenenvironment changes (lecture)
* Natural Selection – finch (p.22) DDT, MRSA, industrial melanism examples (from lecture) species inherit traits, traits are variable in groups, environment acts on traits (p.27 + lecture)
* What is Theory? (lecture)



















Origins of Evolutionary Thought
Anthropology 102- Lecture 2
“Evolution = A Change in thegenetic structure of a population over time” or “descent with modification”
Evolution – A change in the genetic structure of a population over time
Genotype- what you inherit from your parents, phenotype = physical ( very tdiff, what we look like which makes us who we are)
-Widely accepted fact
-Thousands of experimental and natural studies
-Single fundamental unifying force inbiological science
-Same category as photosynthesis, gravity, thermodynamics and cell division
2) Yet, Great Misunderstandings
Hey Anthropologist: Is it true we evolved from monkeys?
We (absolutely, categorically, positively) DID NOT evolve from monkeys or apes. The earliest human ancestor that we know of evolved from a species that lived 5-8 million years ago.
(common ancestor, took our ownpathway, changed over time, 8 million years ago. Other human primates have being doing their own thang)
3) Seeing Evolution
Hey, Anthropologist! If evolution is real, then why don’t we ssee it happening?
You can! Antibiotic resistance is the number one consequence of evolution in our daily lives. Why do you suppose you must cont. taking antibiotics even after your infection gone?
antibiotic workmost of the bacteria, variability.
For larger and more dramatic changes, look to the fossil records.

Antibiotic resistance is the adaptation of bacterial strains to certain of the antibiotic medications doctors prescribe to treat infections the BACTERIA cause, rendering the antibiotic ineffective. Such adaptation is an evolutionary mechanism that allows the strain of bacteria to survive.You can see evolution on organisms, etc.

4) hey! anthropologist! Isn’t evolution just a theory?
Referring to an idea as a theory means it has a lot of support already. Theories have been tested and subjected to verification through accumulated evidence. Evolution is a theory, but so is the theory of relativity and gravitational pull… all have huge mountains of evidence to support the theories.Books with “Theory of…” in Title: 1,588, 541 Results.

5) Why is evolution so poorly understood in the USA?
-2006 study comparing data from wide range of places.
-America’s low score results from poor understanding of biology and genetics & vocal minority who take creationist views (see pgs 27-29)
6) Biological Anthropology – is a science and uses the Scientific Method.
THESCIENTIFIC METHOD- (blah blah)
Problem: Identify the problem (question) Collect info

(look up and write down the scientific method)

when were dogs domesticated? Evidence so far suggest 14,000 years from Russian site Hypothesis: Domesticated dogs are older than 14,000 years.
Excavate at olders sites looking for dog burials.
Belgium cave 31,700 years ago – large husky type dogs.
Hypothesiscan be supported! Dogs with humans much earlier than 14,000 years ago!
Impurical data, accept a hypothesis or throw it out the window. Hypothesis generated from theories. Hypothesis are tiny instead of broad.

Theories get continually worked on, a lot of checks and balances.
-research, find a problem, make a hypothesis, experiment, compile data, form conclusion, maybe find an answer,...
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