An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classiﬁcation for the orders and families of ﬂowering plants: APG III
THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*1
Recommended citation: APG III (2009). This paper was compiled by Birgitta Bremer, Kåre Bremer, Mark W. Chase, Michael F. Fay, James L. Reveal,Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis and Peter F. Stevens, who were equally responsible and listed here in alphabetical order only, with contributions from Arne A. Anderberg, Michael J. Moore, Richard G. Olmstead, Paula J. Rudall, Kenneth J. Sytsma, David C. Tank, Kenneth Wurdack, Jenny Q.-Y. Xiang and Sue Zmarzty (in alphabetical order). Addresses: B. Bremer, The Bergius Foundation at the RoyalSwedish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 50017, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden; K. Bremer, Vice Chancellor, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; M. W. Chase, M. F. Fay, Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3DS, UK; J. L. Reveal, L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Department of Plant Biology, 412 Mann Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-4301, USA; D. E. Soltis,Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611–8525, USA; P. S. Soltis, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611–7800, USA; and P. F. Stevens, Department of Biology, University of Missouri-St. Louis and Missouri Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166–0299, USA
Received 12 August 2009; accepted for publication 18August 2009
A revised and updated classiﬁcation for the families of ﬂowering plants is provided. Many recent studies have yielded increasingly detailed evidence for the positions of formerly unplaced families, resulting in a number of newly adopted orders, including Amborellales, Berberidopsidales, Bruniales, Buxales, Chloranthales, Escalloniales, Huerteales, Nymphaeales, Paracryphiales,Petrosaviales, Picramniales, Trochodendrales, Vitales and Zygophyllales. A number of previously unplaced genera and families are included here in orders, greatly reducing the number of unplaced taxa; these include Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales), Haptanthaceae (Buxales), Peridiscaceae (Saxifragales), Huaceae (Oxalidales), Centroplacaceae and Rafflesiaceae (both Malpighiales), Aphloiaceae, Geissolomataceaeand Strasburgeriaceae (all Crossosomatales), Picramniaceae (Picramniales), Dipentodontaceae and Gerrardinaceae (both Huerteales), Cytinaceae (Malvales), Balanophoraceae (Santalales), Mitrastemonaceae (Ericales) and Boraginaceae (now at least known to be a member of lamiid clade). Newly segregated families for genera previously understood to be in other APG-recognized families includePetermanniaceae (Liliales), Calophyllaceae (Malpighiales), Capparaceae and Cleomaceae (both Brassicales), Schoepﬁaceae (Santalales), Anacampserotaceae, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae and Talinaceae (all Caryophyllales) and Linderniaceae and Thomandersiaceae (both Lamiales). Use of bracketed families is abandoned because of its unpopularity, and in most cases the broader circumscriptions are retained;these include Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceace and Xanthorrheaceae (all Asparagales), Passiﬂoraceae (Malpighiales), Primulaceae (Ericales) and several other smaller families. Separate papers in this same volume deal with a new linear order for APG, subfamilial names that can be used for more accurate communication in Amaryllidaceae s.l., Asparagaceace s.l. and Xanthorrheaceae s.l. (all Asparagales) anda formal supraordinal classiﬁcation for the ﬂowering plants. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 161, 105–121.
ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: angiosperm classiﬁcation – phylogenetic classiﬁcation – DNA phylogenetics –
classiﬁcation system – APG system.
*Corresponding author: Mark W. Chase. E-mail: email@example.com © 2009 The Linnean Society of...