Apwh ch 11 pirates

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Japan & Africa

Political
• Japan was the civilization least developed of East Asia because the isolation of the continent of Asia
• Before oceanic trade was well advanced Japan was not affected by political and cultural changes form mainland
• Japan is composed by approximately 3000 islands, the largest is Honshu, has more than half the population
• Black current coming north from tropicalseas moderates winter and typhoons also
• Most Japanese nation is descendent from invader nations coming from Korea
• Dominant clan in Yamato, came from Kyushu and said were decedents from Sun Goddess
• Yamato clan extended political power, and were dominant over other clans, by saying the legend that Yamato chief was divinely appointed to rule Japan
• Legend said: Sun Goddess send hisgrandson Ninigino-Mikoto, to west island of Kyushu with the 3 symbols of Japanese royalty: jewels, sword and a mirror
• Ninigi grandson advanced by the coast to Yamato, ruled as Jimmu (“first emperor”)
• Japanese invaded Korea in 369 B.C.E, to maintain balance of power, when Korea was dividing in 3 kingdoms Japan went with one
• Reconstructed gov. model with the Tang model, by decree known as TaikaReform Edict, in 645 C.E, created Japan imperial system
• Taika Edict said there were not more clan leader but there was an emperor with absolute power, honoring Confucian principles
• Japan was divided in provinces, prefectures, subperfectures, administrated by a bureaucracy
• Candidates for gov. were not based on familiarity, but in knowing Chinese philosophy and classical literature
•Edict said all land belong to the emperor that would divide equally to farmers and redistribute every 6 years, needed to pay taxes to the state
• The reform was not successfully it was written on paper but not done completely
• Imperial clan that enjoyed of big authority, and aristocracy couldn’t be broken easily
• Emperor made a head clan officials from their territory
• Examinations were donefor gov. positions, but the important ones were for the aristocracy members
• Equalizing the land was not done, they wanted to distributes among cultivators, some evaded taxation, so taxable land decreased
• Lands for cultivation then became personal holdings not imperial so economy decreased
• The reform did cultural progress- Inspired in Tang capital they build Nara following Chinese modelbroad streets, aligned squares
• In 779 C.E they build Kyoto, as capital and most important city until now, had palaces, temples, public buildings, stimulated art
• Sub-Sahara Africa did not develop so fast
• Didn’t have own writing system nor written laws
• 1st west African kingdom was called Ghana or Awkar- was a black Berber state, people known as the worlds major gold exploiters
• MuslimsArabs got North Africa
• Christian Nubian kingdom appeared in 6th century influenced by Byzantine Greece, developed own language, beautiful cities, monasteries cathedrals, army strong to support Muslim intrusions

Intelectual

• Time of Qin dynasty in China, Japan has some Chinese knowledge
• Chinese writing system (405 c.e) and Buddhism (552 c.e) introduced in Japan
• Japanese language isphonetically dif. from Chinese
• Hence is the process of learning to write Japanese
• Japanese scholars, officials, men of letter wrote on classical Chinese, few Japanese scholars speak Chinese
• Buddhism in Japan helped spread Chinese culture: art, architecture and literature
• Government in Yamato in 7 and 8 century, sent officials embassies to Tang court, to be trained in science,medicine, military tactics, read building methods, architecture style
• They began to study Confucian writings
• 10th and 11th century started the writing in prose in diaries, famous romantic novels “The Tale of Gengi”, written by Murasaki
• Writing on paper was not so easy b/c of humid climates, termites and mold made preservation difficult
• Knowledge was based on memory

Religion
• Each clan...
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