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STREETS & PATTERNS

STREETS & PATTERNS

STEPHEN MARSHALL

First published 2005 by Spon Press 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Spon Press 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. "To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge'scollection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore. tandf.co.uk.” Spon Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group © 2005 Stephen Marshall All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage orretrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Marshall, Stephen, 1967–. Streets and patterns/Stephen Marshall. 1st ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Streets – Design. 2. Cityplanning. 3. Traffic engineering. I. Title. NA9053.S7M37 2004 711′.41 – dc22 2004006474 ISBN 0-203-58939-4 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-203-33785-9 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0–415–31750–9 (Print Edition)

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CONTENTS

Illustration credits Preface 1 Introduction Revolution Counter-revolution Transport and urban designThis book The challenge Streets Highway layout Desired patterns Complexity and contradiction Conclusions Street type and hierarchy Principles of hierarchy Street type and classification The strategic structure Street type revisited Conclusions Pattern type Classification of pattern Developing typologies of pattern

ix xi 1 3 9 10 15 21 22 27 29 34 40 45 46 52 58 63 67 73 74 83

2

3

4 vi

CONTENTS

Quantifying pattern Conclusions

97 101

5

Route structure Network representation and analysis Route structure Route structure properties Route type Conclusions

107 108 115 120 123 130

6

Connectivity and complexity Example networks Connectivity analysis Complexity analysis Characteristic structure Conclusions

133 134 138 145 151 154

7

The constitution ofstructure Hierarchical structure Composition, configuration and constitution Constitutionally defined street type Types of constitutional structure The structure of car orientation The structure of disurban creation Conclusions

159 160 165 169 171 178 181 186

8

Modes, streets and places The modal kaleidoscope A new formulation for route hierarchy Streetspace classification Urban streettypology Conclusions

191 192 200 210 214 215

9

From streets to patterns Design approaches – generative processes A street-based constitution Example patterns Conclusions

221 222 228 235 241

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CONTENTS

vii

10

Conclusions Tottenham Court Road revisited Coding for streets and patterns Implications forpractice The future

245 246 248 250 254 261 291 297 315

Appendices Glossary Bibliography Index

0.0 • Semmel weis Utca, Budapest

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ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

© Michael Abbey/Science Photo Library 5.0 Aerofilms 4.0 Alan Baxter and Associates 2.8, 2.9 American Institute of Architects 3.2 Mike Biddulph/PolicyPress 3.9(a), 7.8(a) Eric Brewer 8.12 Calthorpe Associates 2.7(a) Calthorpe Associates/Princeton Architectural Press 2.4, 7.8(b) Carta Lüthi and Ramseier 5.2(a) From City as Landscape, Tom Turner, 1996, Spon Press 1.2 Treasa Creavin 0.0, 3.6(a), 7.0, 7.1(d), 7.9(b), 8.6(c), 8.7(b), 8.10(d) © Crown copyright (1963) 1.0, 1.1, 3.3, 3.22, 7.21, 8.16 Seema Dhanjal 8.5(c) © Martin Dohrn/Science Photo...
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