Boys tend to play outside, in large groups that are hierarchically structured. Their
groups have a leader who tells others what to do and how to do it, and resists doing whatother boys propose. It is by giving orders that high status is negotiated. Another way boys
achieve status is to take centre stage by telling stories and jokes, and by challenging the
stories andjokes of others. Boys’ games have winners and losers and elaborate systems of
rules that are frequently the subjects of arguments. Finally, boys are frequently heard to
boast about their skills, likesand possessions, and argue about who is best at what.
Girls, on the other hand, play in small groups or pairs. The centre of a girl’s social
life is her best friend. Within the group, intimacy iskey: differentiation is measured by
relative closeness. In their most frequent games, such as jump rope and hopscotch,
everyone gets a turn. Many of their activities (such as playing with dolls)do not have
winners or losers. Although some girls are certainly more skilled than others, girls are
expected not to boast about it, or show that they think they are better than the others. Girlsdon’t give orders: they express their preferences as suggestions, and suggestions are likely
to be accepted.
1. Answer the following questions using your own words:
1. What do boysfrequently argue about?
2. Why does everybody get a turn in girls’ games?
2. Are the following statements true or false? (1 point)
1. Boys often boast about their abilities:____________________2. Girls’ activities are highly competitive: ____________________
2. Find a word or phrase in the test which, in context, is similar in meaning to:
1. Humorous or funny anecdotes:____________________
2. Abilities: ____________________
3. Choose a, b or c in each question below. Only one choice is correct:
1. Boys gain leadership by 2
a. caring and sharing