Articulo maiz y soya en ingles

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Maize
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Maiz) Maize ( /ˈmeɪz/ mays; Zea mays L, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz) known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maizekernels are used in cooking as a vegetable or starch. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated it in numerous varieties throughout central and southern Mexico, cooked, ground or processed through nixtamalization. Between 1700 and 1250 BCE, the crop spread through much of the Americas. The region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. After European contact with the Americas inthe late 15th and early 16th centuries, explorers and traders carried maize back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Maize spread to the rest of the world due to its ability to grow in diverse climates. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are usually grown for human consumption, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed and as chemical feedstocks. Maize is the mostwidely grown crop in the Americas with 332 million metric tons grown annually in the United States. Approximately 40% of the crop - 130 million tons - is used for corn ethanol.[1] Transgenic maize (Genetically Modified Corn) made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009.[2] While natural maize varieties grow to 12 metres (39 ft) tall,[3] most commercially grown maize has been bred fora standardized height of 2.5 metres (8.2 ft). Sweet corn is usually shorter than field corn varieties. Maize

Illustration depicting both male and female flowers of maize

Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): Order: Family: Subfamily: Tribe: Genus: Species: Plantae Commelinids Poales Poaceae Panicoideae Andropogoneae Zea Z. mays Binomial name Zea mays
L.

Contents
1 Namingconventions 2 Structure and physiology 2.1 Seeds 3 Genetics 4 Breeding 4.1 Genetic modification 5 Origin

5 Origin 6 Domestication 7 Production 7.1 Methods 7.2 Quantity 7.2.1 United States 8 Pests 8.1 Insects 8.2 Diseases 9 Uses 9.1 Human food 9.2 Alternative medicine 9.3 Chemicals 9.4 Biofuel 9.5 Ornamental and other uses 9.6 Fodder 9.7 Commodity 9.8 U.S. usage breakdown 10 Comparison to otherstaple foods 11 Hazards 11.1 Pellagra 11.2 Allergy 12 Art 13 Popular culture 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 External links

Full-grown maize plants

Naming conventions
The term "maize" derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word maiz for the plant. This was the term used in the United Kingdom and Ireland, where it is now usually called "sweet corn", the most common form ofthe plant known to people there. Sweet corn is harvested earlier and eaten as a vegetable rather than a grain.[4] Outside the British Isles, another common term for maize is "corn". This was originally the English term for any cereal crop. In North America, its meaning has been restricted since the 19th century to maize, as it was shortened from "Indian corn".[5] The term Indian corn now refersspecifically to multi-colored "field corn" (flint corn) cultivars.[5] In scientific and formal usage, "maize" is normally used in a global context. Equally, in bulktrading contexts, "corn" is used most frequently. In the UK, Australia and other English-speaking countries, the word "corn" is often used in culinary contexts, particularly in naming products such as popcorn, corn flakes and babycorn. However, within the

such as popcorn, corn flakes and baby corn. However, within the United States, the term "maize" is almost totally unheard of. "Maize" is used in agricultural and scientific references.[Note 1] In Southern Africa, maize is commonly referred to as mielie or mealie, from the Portuguese milho.[6] Mielie-meal is the ground form. Corn is very popular in the Coastal Plains....
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