Artifical inteligence

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  • Publicado : 7 de mayo de 2011
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Theoretical Framework

"Artificial Intelligence is a field of science and engineering that deals with the understanding, from the point of view, of what is commonly called intelligent behavior, the simulation of man's intellectual activities (handling, reasoning, perception, learning, creation) and so it deals with the creation of artifacts that exhibit this behavior." Artificial Intelligenceis a combination of computer science, physiology and philosophy, so general and broad as it is that brings various fields, which have in common the creation of machines that can "think”.

Some computer experts have argued, for some time, computers will possess skills and abilities similar to humans, and that in the near future; we will match and exceed many of the intellectual activitiestraditionally reserved humans.

“In principle, the possibilities are almost unlimited, so are today artificial intelligence programs in artificial satellites, in major airports, hospitals, diagnostic systems and a multitude of applications up to the character recognition of the human voice. It was not for the existence and versatility of the IA, many of the things we are accustomed to use could notfunction the same way and some of them even would." Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a very broad field of study, and constantly changing. However, its final product is always software. These programs work product of the IA, it´s called Intelligent Systems (IS).
SI incorporates a knowledge drawn from the experience and expertise of human experts. The fields of application of the SI's are varied;consider the example of a medical diagnostic system, or an integrated system to support business decisions. In any case, an SI will build a data and become information (knowledge), so that helps take a decision. To convert the data into useful information, we use algorithms of thinking, learning and evolution. In fact, the SI will always act in real time, representing an increase of productivity.In the case of medical applications of artificial intelligence are so broad that we can’t even summarize them all, so we will mention some of the most widely used and are used today.

IA and Medicine
Expert Systems
"An expert system is defined as the software environment able to manage one's own knowledge base, problem solving well-defined and specific, produce new knowledge and explaintheir reasoning. Expert systems can achieve results due to the fact that knowledge has been separated from the reasoning applicable to this knowledge. The knowledge base representing the expertise of a particular field. Expert systems converge in three major areas of knowledge: logic, cognitive psychology and decision support, in fact, logic and programming integrated acts of communication andreasoning."
Today is the application area of AI within medicine's most successful. Expert systems store and use knowledge of human experts in a particular application domain. Its use increases productivity, improves efficiency in decision making or simply to solve problems when experts are not present. There are many examples of expert systems developed.

A generic expert system consists of twomain modules:
1. The knowledge base of expert system regarding a specific issue for which designed the system. This knowledge is encoded as a specific notation that includes rules, predicates, semantic nets and objects.
2. The inference engine is one that combines the facts and the particular questions, using the knowledge base, selecting the data and take appropriate steps to present theresults.

"The main task of an SE is trying to advise the user. Expert systems are a commercial variety of a class of computer programs called knowledge-based systems. The knowledge in expert systems is highly structured, ie the process of solving problems of a domain is not clear. It is explicitly stated in relationships or deductively inferred from the chain of propositions. "
Since every...
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