Ministerio Del Poder Popular Para La Educación Superior
Universidad Rómulo Gallegos
Escuela de Medicina
Profesora: Luzmary Diaz
San Juan De Los Morros, Guárico; junio 2010
The kidneysare paired organs with several functions. They are seen in many types of animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates [simple present]. They are an essential part of the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid-base balance, and regulation of blood pressure. They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, andremove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium; the kidneys also are responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol, renin, and erythropoietin.
They were locating at the rear of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneum [past progressive]the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins. Each kidney excretes urine into a ureter, itself a paired structure that empties into the urinary bladder.
Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with kidney diseases. Diseases of the kidney are diverse, but individuals with kidney diseasefrequently display characteristic clinical features. Common clinical conditions it’s involving the kidney [present progressive], include the nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, renal cysts, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, urinary tract infection, nephrolithiasis, and urinary tract obstruction. Various cancers of the kidney exist; the most common adult renal cancer is renal cellcarcinoma. Cancers, cysts, and some other renal conditions can be managed with removal of the kidney, or nephrectomy. When renal function, measured by glomerular filtration rate, is persistently poor, dialysis and kidney transplantation may be treatment options. Although they are not severely harmful, kidney stones can be a pain and a nuisance. The removal of kidney stones includes sound wave treatment,which breaks up the stones into smaller pieces which are then passed through the urinary tract. One common symptom of kidney stones is a sharp pain in the medial/lateral segments of the lower back.
In humans, the kidneys are located in the abdominal cavity, in a space called the retroperitoneum. There are two, one on each side of the spine; they are approximately at the vertebral levelT12 to L3. The right kidney sits just below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver, the left below the diaphragm and posterior to the spleen. Resting on top of each kidney is an adrenal gland. The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver typically results in the right kidney being slightly lower than the left, and left kidney being located slightly more medial than the right.The upper (cranial) parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs, and each whole kidney and adrenal gland are surrounded by two layers of fat (the perirenal and pararenal fat) and the renal fascia. Each adult kidney weighs between 125 and 170 grams in males and between 115 and 155 grams in females. The left kidney is typically slightly larger than the right.
Thekidney has a bean-shaped structure; each kidney has concave and convex surfaces [present perfect]. The concave surface, the renal hilum, is the point at which the renal artery enters the organ, and the renal vein and ureter leave. The kidney is surrounded by tough fibrous tissue, the renal capsule, which is itself surrounded by perinephric fat, renal fascia (of Gerota) and paranephric fat. The...