Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
ATTENTION PHARMACIST: Detach "Patient's Instructions for Use" from package insert and dispense with the product.
The active ingredient in ATROVENT Nasal Spray is ipratropium bromide (asthe monohydrate). It is an anticholinergic agent chemically described as 8-azoniabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, 3-(3-hydroxy-1-oxo-2-phenylpropoxy)-8-methyl-8-(1-methylethyl)-, bromide monohydrate, (3-endo, 8-syn)-: a synthetic quaternary ammonium compound, chemically related to atropine. The structural formula is:
C20H30BrNO3•H2O ipratropium bromide Mol. Wt. 430.4
Ipratropium bromide is awhite to off-white crystalline substance, freely soluble in water and methanol, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in non-polar media. In aqueous solution, it exists in an ionized state as a quaternary ammonium compound.
ATROVENT Nasal Spray 0.06% is a metered-dose, manual pump spray unit which delivers 42 mcg ipratropium bromide (on an anhydrous basis) per spray (70 µL) in an isotonicaqueous solution, pH-adjusted to 4.7 with hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide (if needed). It also contains benzalkonium chloride, edetate disodium, sodium chloride, and purified water. Each bottle contains 165 sprays.
Mechanism of Action
Ipratropium bromide is an anticholinergic (parasympatholytic) agent which, based on animal studies, appears to inhibitvagally-mediated reflexes by antagonizing the action of acetylcholine, the transmitter agent released at the neuromuscular junctions in the lung. In humans, ipratropium bromide has anti-secretory properties and, when applied locally, inhibits secretions from the serous and seromucous glands lining the nasal mucosa. Ipratropium bromide is a quaternary amine that minimally crosses the nasal and gastrointestinalmembranes and the blood-brain barrier, resulting in a reduction of the systemic anticholinergic effects (e.g., neurologic, ophthalmic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal effects) that are seen with tertiary anticholinergic amines.
Absorption: Ipratropium bromide is poorly absorbed into the systemic circulation following oral administration (2-3%). Less than 20% of an 84 mcgper nostril dose was absorbed from the nasal mucosa of normal volunteers, induced-cold adult volunteers, naturally acquired common cold pediatric patients, or perennial rhinitis adult patients.
Distribution: Ipratropium bromide is minimally bound (0 to 9% in vitro) to plasma albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein. Its blood/plasma concentration ratio was estimated to be about 0.89. Studies in rats haveshown that ipratropium bromide does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
Metabolism: Ipratropium bromide is partially metabolized to ester hydrolysis products, tropic acid, and tropane. These metabolites appear to be inactive based on in vitro receptor affinity studies using rat brain tissue homogenates.
Elimination: After intravenous administration of 2 mg ipratropium bromide to 10 healthyvolunteers, the terminal half-life of ipratropium bromide was approximately 1.6 hours. The total body clearance and renal clearance were estimated to be 2,505 and 1,019 mL/min, respectively. The amount of the total dose excreted unchanged in the urine (Ae) within 24 hours was approximately one-half of the administered dose.
Pediatrics: Following administration of 84 mcg of ipratropium bromide pernostril three times a day in patients 5-18 years old (n=42) with a naturally acquired common cold, the mean amount of the total dose excreted unchanged in the urine of 7.8% was comparable to 84 mcg per nostril four times a day in an adult induced common cold population (n=22) of 7.3 to 8.1%. Plasma ipratropium concentrations were relatively low (ranging from undetectable up to 0.62 ng/mL). No...