Designation: D 5117 – 96
Standard Test Method for
Dye Penetration of Solid Fiberglass Reinforced Pultruded Stock1
This standard is issued under the ﬁxed designation D 5117; the number immediately following the designationindicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
1. Scope 1.1 This dye-penetrant test method covers a means of evaluating solid ﬁberglass reinforced pultruded rock stock for longitudinalwicking. There are generally three mechanisms that promote wicking, any or all of which may be operating at a given time.
NOTE 1—The specimen’s cross-section may reﬂect delaminations, longitudinal continuous voids, or the presence of hollow ﬁbers, or all three. Occasionally these ﬂaws may be detected by this test, but other tests are usually required.
rated in a ﬁberglass reinforced pultrudedproduct. 4. Summary of Test Method 4.1 Pultruded rock stock of circular cross-section is tested by placing the specimen(s) on end into the dye penetrant to a speciﬁed depth and observing the wicking action as spots, or dots, on the opposite, dry face. 4.2 The wicking action through the length of the specimen is due to the capillary action of the penetrant through the open pathways in the composite.These pathways are typically occupied by air and can be caused by continuous voids, cracks, or hollow ﬁbers, or all three, in the reinforcement. 5. Signiﬁcance and Use 5.1 This test method is useful for establishing the integrity of composite rod. The presence of voids, cracks, and hollow ﬁbers are considered detrimental to the structural integrity of the composite and may cause reduced electricalresistance and increased current leakage. 5.2 A perfect composite would be ﬂaw-free, and there would be no possibility of wicking. Composites of this type are virtually nonexistent, as there will typically be entrapped air in the resin developed during manufacture, occasional hollow ﬁbers, and occasional cracks due to thermal stresses. 5.3 This test method is intended to provide a tool for measuringthe extent of ﬂaws in a composite over very short lengths of material. The presence of wicking over 1 in. lengths may not necessarily imply that the composite will perform unsatisfactorily for its intended end-use. Therefore, interpretation of test results should be made with care. 5.4 This test method was developed as a technique for estimating quality and consistency of pultruded rod stock,which is a composite of resin and reinforcement. The process may also affect the quality of the product. It should be useful for a manufacturer in determining whether any gross changes in quality have taken place due to process or raw material changes. 5.5 Since the results of this test are so sensitive to sample size, penetrant type, penetrant used, viscosity, duration of test, and other factors, noattempt to arrive at or recommend development of a speciﬁcation for these materials has been made. It is suggested that such a speciﬁcation should be negotiated between supplier and end user.
1.2 The results of a wicking test are dependent on specimen type and size, penetrant type, time of exposure in the penetrant, penetrant viscosity, etc. Any attempt to use a wicking test to establishspeciﬁcation criteria should be made with great care. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For speciﬁc hazard statements, see 10.3 and 10.6.