Ataque denegacion de servicios

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A Review of distributed denial service attacks and defence’s models

Sergio Alva Márquez
School of Information Technology, Deakin University,
Burwood 3125, Victoria, Australia


With the rapidly growing interest in the internet, network computer systems are now playing on a global scale. Along with the all the benefits that the internet has brought with it,it also bring a lot of losses. New threats and attacks are being created every day by individuals and groups to attack new or old target computer systems. This survey report analysis and reviews distributed denial services attacks and defence’s, with the goal of protecting web services from such attacks. Section one and two are introduction and overview of deny-of-service and distributeddenial-of-services. Section 3 reviews distributed denial-of-service attack and defence architecture’s and tools. The last section concludes with an overview of current issues and problems that distributed defence have to deal with.

Table of Contents:

1 Introduction 2
2 Background of Distributed Denial Service 2
2.1 Overview 2
2.1.1 Denial of Service (DoS) 3
2.1.2 Distributed Denialof Service (DDoS) 7
2.1.3 Difference between DoS and DDoS 11
3 Current Research and Developments 12
3.1 Distributed Denial Service Architecture and Attack Tools 12
3.2 Distributed Denial Service Attack Taxonomy and Attack Tools 13
3.2.1 Distributed Denial Service Architecture 14
3.2.1 Distributed Denial Service Attack Components 16
3.2.2 Distributed Denial of ServiceAttack Tools 20
3.3 Distributed Denial Service Defence Taxonomy and Defence Tools 23
3.3.1 Distributed Denial Service Defence Architecture 23
3.3.2 Distributed Denial Service Defence Tool Analysis 27
4 Further Work 31
4.1 Research Issues and Challenges 31
4.2 DDoS Attack Issues and Challenges of DDoS defence 31
Reference 34

1. Introduction

Ten years ago the internet wasstill in its infancy and only members of universities and large corporations and governments had access. Today, though, the internet has grown so large and more efficient at information sharing that a lot of businesses and computer users now use the internet for business purposes. With the internet becoming larger, a problem has raised that only seems to get bigger as the internet gets bigger. Thisproblem is not an attempt to steal somebody’s identity or information. Instead its goal or objective is to the user from being able to function with their system, to deny them the ability to access particular service, like the internet. This problem’s is called deny-of-service, in which a hostile computer user attempts to exploit a known vulnerability or ‘flood’ the victim with meaninglesstraffic with the intent of slowing or crashing the victim machine. Since the internet has grown large and computer system to be able to handle more communication traffic, attackers found that their deny-of-service attacks were becoming obsolete, thereby attackers started to use internet distributed structure to implement their attacks. This new form of attack was called distributed denial of serviceattack.

According to the Computer Emergency Response Team/Coordination center (CERT/CC) [CERT/CC, 2002], the number of computer attacks have doubled since 1988. In addition, these attacks are growing in severity, sophistication and complex. An example of this can be seen in Slammer/Sapphire worm, which was one of the fastest growing computer worms at this present time. It began to spreadthrough the internet, doubling in size every 8.5 seconds and it infected at a miminum 75,000 nodes or hosts. The symptoms of this worm varied from causing network outages, canceling airline flights, interference with electronic system and Automatic Teller Machine failures [Moore, Paxson, Savage, Shannon, C., Staniford, & Weaver, (2003)]. In the earlier days of the internet, an attacker would need...
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