* repinique, a high-pitched tom-tom whose player is traditionally the leader of the ensemble.* surdo, a large drum with an average size of 50 cm in diameter. It provides the downbeat, the bass downbeat of the rhythm. When only one surdo is playing, itaccentuates the 2nd and 4th beat of every measure. When a second surdo is playing, it is tuned slightly higher and is played accentuating the first and third beats ofthe measure.
* tamborim, a small drum usually played with a stick or a multi-pronged plastic beater.
* bells (agogô, bongo, and cowbell)
* Chocalo(Ganzá, Afuche, and Maracas) of various types.
* caixa, a thin snare drum.
* cuica, a single headed drum with a stick mounted inside the drum body,perpendicular to the head. The instrument is played by rubbing a damp cloth along the length of this stick, while pressing the head of the drum with a finger or thumb. Thecloser to the stick the finger is pressed, the higher the pitch of the sound is produced. The cuica creates a unique sound, which can sometimes sound like a humanvoice.
* timba, a long drum that is used to produce low tones in the ensemble. It is usually played with one hand on the head, and the other beating the bodyof the drum.
* pandeiro, similar to a tambourine and played elaborately with the hand. Unlike the tambourine, the pandeiro can be tuned.
* reco-reco (knownin Spanish as the guiro), a usually hollow wooden instrument with a ridged exterior surface that is scraped with a stick.
* apito, a small wooden whistle.