It began in 1927 after the Northern Expedition, when the right-wingfaction of the KMTled by Chiang Kai-shek, purged the Communists from the alliance between the KMTand the CCP.
The war ended in 1950 with an unofficial cessation of hostilities between thefactions,finally being controlled by the Communist mainland China (including Hainan Island), where the new regime proclaimed the People's Republic of China while the Nationalists managed to maintain controlover the island territories of Taiwan,Pescadores, and several offshore islands of Fujian province, territory where it hasremained to the present regime of the Republic of China.
Sun Yat-sen, leaderof the Kuomintang (KMTR), sought the help of foreign powers todefeat the warlords who had seized control of northern China following the fall of theQing Dynasty. The Western democracies ignoredthe nationalist leader's efforts to attract help. However, in 1921 Sun Yat-sen turned to the Soviet Union. Making use of political pragmatism, the Soviet leaders launched an ambiguouspolicy under whichsupported the KMT Sun while the newly founded Communist Party of China (CPC).The Soviets hoped for Communist consolidation but were prepared for the victory ofeither side. Thus began the struggle for powerbetween nationalists and communists.
In 1923 a joint statement in Shanghai Sun and a Soviet representative to the Soviet Union pledged to assist in China's national unification. Soviet advisers -the most prominent of whom, Mikhail Borodin, was an agent of the Comintern - began arriving inChina in 1923 to support the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines outlined bythe Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The CPC had received from the Comintern instructions to cooperate with the KMT and its members were encouraged to join them as long as the parties maintain...