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Fundamentos de bases de datos
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Capítulo 1

! 3 9 < -

, 9

0

9 ; , , = > 9 ! ! , ! 3 , " < ( 9 ( ( ( 3 0 9 9 , 9 " < =" 9 < , , , 3 0 9

(

" ! 0 "

, 0 9 > 7

9 , 9 " ; , 0 , 9 , ( ! , 9 ?9 ( ! , 9 3 < , = "

9 , ("

9 !

! 3

9 0

9, 0 0 ( " ,

9

9 0 9 ,3 9 ! 9 , " , 9( < ( ,

, ! @



! ! 3 " ( 0 0 < '

" !

#, 3 > %! ",

0 -

9 3

, " ,( !

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! 3 (

$ ?

@;

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9

% '

0 , ?

, 0

, A " ( 9 ! , 3

9 B , , ! "

? 9 <

* , 0 %! • 0 = ' , * ( ? ? ! ,! " = ( % &

@ ! 3 , 9 , > # ( , ( 9 9 , > 79 *

.

( ,3

> 9 , ! ,3 ! ,7 9

?

9



2 + ! , 0 "

#; , ! 9

0 !

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0

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3 , ", = ( " 9"

#* !

7 0 , ! " ! , 7

9

$&
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=

I

,

! 0

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( " ,3 9 ,

9 !

0( -

> 9 9 * ! 3 ! 0 3 9 ! 9 > ! @

, 99 % " * ! ,! ( ( (

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+ )
' * " , ! / 9, ; 0 + ) 9 , 3 / 9< 9 * * #; 9 , # 3 @ ( 4 " * ! ! #9 * : ? ! 0 , ! , ( , ! 6*9 9 ! , , ( * ! !#

( " J * K , * 3 ? , 9 > + ) ( - ! 6 %= ! M/ 78 * !
K 4) 4 15 2 3 1$

: @

9 = 5+#9 = 1#9 = 1#9 = 5# 9 , ! > 3 9 9 ( 9 09 9" ( ! 9 * " ( 5 ! LL 9 0 3 , 2 3 1$L$ 55 55L ! L 9L 9L ' 3 ? 9

0 !

# #9 0 @ 4 9 4

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, 8 ( > : > 9 > ! ( 9 ! < < < ( ! ! , ( ? ( ( 9 > > > * , > , 0 = : , " ? ; ? 9

* 9 0 ! =

(

: 9 ,

" ( < (

! ! . @ 9" ( 9 , . 8 * #9-# P = ! " 8 = = " 9 @2 " P" Q# = 8 ! 8 *9#9-# ' Q9 " P ; 2 0 ( @ * # -# Q ; 9 ? % ( : 9" 8 0 #

< * P ,9 ( 0 > = " 9 = P 8 > " #" ? ! 3 , 0 Q 0

,

" " A B , @2 3 9 Q ; (

= 2@

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,

+ /
7 9 9" ( " * J " " ( 0 "

0'
! 0, ! < " 7 " 0 ! 9 @2 " = 0 9 "

-

! 0 0 9

9 (

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#

9

9

:
, ! , < < 9 , ; 2 , ( > * ! " (
$/ . C C C . . < 3

3 79 ! 9 ! @ / #> !9 ,
; / 2 51 & 5 $ 1 4& 5 $ 1 4& 5 $ 1 4& $) &4 1 $) &4 1 + + + 5 5+ 1 1+ 4+ 4+ 5+ + 1 + ) 1+

9 3 ( < , , " ( , 9 0 -/ : , ! ( , < , ,
+ + 5+ + + + 5+ 5+ 8 2; + R 1R 5++1 5R +R 5++ 5R R 5++ + R 5++1 +$R +R R + 5++1 +5R R + 5++1 < $& S +++ 4 S 1++ 4 S 1++ 4 S +++ 4 S 1++ 4 S 1++ 4

9 ! < ( " ( 7

> ! # 9

"! ( #9

> = 0 $ 9" 3 ( ( : 9

,

= 9 3 , = 9 9

( " ?,
+

, (

9

* ,

! > ? 9
$/ . C C C . . < 3

3 ( (
; / 2 51 & 5 $ 1 4& 5 $ 1 4& 5 $ 1 4& $) &4 1 $) &4 1 + + + 5 5+ 1 1+ 4+ 4+ 5+ + 1 + ) 1+ +

, , 7 9
+ + 5+ + + + 5+ 5+

, 0

" ( >
8 2; + R 1R 5++1 5R +R5++ 5R R 5++ + R 5++1 +$R + R R + 5++1 +5R R + 5++1

= ! ! ?
< $& S +++ 4 S 1++ 4 S 1++ 4 S +++ 4 S 1++ 4 S 1++ 4

+ $/ 4) 4 1 $1 5 $1 5 $1 5 &+51 )&4 &+51 )&4

, Q , P9 P

(

> < 9 0 : , 0 3 , 0 3 9? 0 #* #* 9 * 0 ! , 9 > ! : ! ! ! > 9 , =9 3( 9 " : 9 3 0 ! , " 7 ! 3 ! "

"

Capítulo 3

6* , %! ( 0 , " 0 %2

6 9

" * ! !# " ! 0 ! ,I ,

! , ( K 0 U ! @ , , = ? 0 TU 9 9 (9 9 " 9 ( 9 ( " ! ^N#

1+++ 2 ( " T 2 *

6 : + ' 5&

!

1+++ ++ ++++ ++

#. 0 , 3

!

, ! ! 0 ( ! * ]9 ^9 ^N9 ]N9 N9 ]^ 9 9 F9 F I 9 I 9 3 @ 9 9 NL K 1++ " ( 9 0 " ! L ! N# 9 0 9 ( , 9 ( " >

. ! . / ! *

@

: ,

J

! K / 78 ^N 1+++ " 9 0 ! ^N# < @

* "

1

111+++ ++

6 6

+Y 5+ Y

11+++ ++ 1+++ ++

2 * !

( ( ( < 8 / 78

0 !

. 0

=

3 K 9 9 "" ! ,, < 9

" ! W -

< K K 0@

_ W

`_ 9 9

39 , W` _ W 9

3 ! > W`

( L WL

-

6 6 :

+Y 5+ Y 5+ Y

11+++ ++ 1+++ ++ +++++ ++

* , * !

0 K / 78 ++++ ! 9

! " 9 +++++ "

!

"

6 : + ' 5& : 5+ Y

!

1+++ ++ ++++ ++ +++++ ++

2'** 2'**

*

3 9 9 3 3 , ! 0 K 9 ! "

!

( ! ( ! '

, N#

.

!

/ 78 0@

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L 9L

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