Biomolecules

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1. Carbohydrates

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Source of Energy Molecules containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen 3 types of CHO’s
◦ Monosaccharides ◦ Disaccharides ◦ Polysaccharides

Simples
Complex

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Only 1 sugar unit – monomer Examples: Glucose – energy in cell Fructose – fruit sugar



Glucose is found in sport drinks Fructose is found in fruit





Glucose & Fructose arefound in honey
Galactose – milk sugar



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Based on the number of carbon atoms TRIOSE – C3H6O3 – 3 carbons TETROSES – 4 carbons PENTOSE – 5 carbons HEXOSE – 6 carbons HEPTOSE –7 carbons





Compounds with the same chemical formula but different structure Glucose & Galactose are isomers because their structures are different, but their chemical formulas are thesame



Made of 2 or more sugar units – polymer
Example: Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose (mono) (mono) (disaccharide)







Starch: A plant polysaccharide

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Energy storagemolecule for plants Animals obtain energy from starch (potatoes, grain, and rice) by breaking it into glucose





Glycogen: An animal polysaccharide excess sugar is stored temporarily in the formof glycogen Glycogen stores are found near muscle/liver cells

Cellulose: Most abundant organic molecule on Earth  Makes up fibrils – tough “cables” in cellular walls of plants  No nutritionalvalue for humans, but provides dietary fiber




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Macromolecules that have 2 primary functions: Long term storage of energy and carbon Building of structural parts of all cellmembranes Simple lipids do not dissolve in water



Building blocks of lipids are fatty acids and glycerol

TRIGLYCERIDE



It depends on their fatty acids

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Structuralcomponents of cells Messengers Receptor of messages between cells Enzymes



Blocks of amino acids

POLYPEPTIDE







The combination of polypeptide chains results in PROTEINS A...
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