Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms, it deals with the structures and functions of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids,nucleic acids and other biomolecules.
Among the vast number of different biomulecule, many are complex and large molecules (called polymers), which are composed of similar repeating subunits (calledmonomers). Each class of polymeric biomolecule has a different set of subunit types. For example. A protein is a polymer whose subunits are selected from a set of 20 or more amino acids. Biochemistrystudies the chemical properties of important biological molecules, like proteins, and in particular the chemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
The biochemistry of cell metabolism and the endocrinesystem has been extensively described. Other areas of biochemistry include the genetic code (DNA, RNA) protein synthesis, cell membrane transport, and signal transduction.
Main article:history of biochemistry
Originally, it was generally believed that life was not subject to the laws of science the way non-life was. It was thought that only living beings could produce the moleculesof life (from other, previously existing biomolecules ). Then, in 1828, friedrich Wohler published a paper on the synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created artificially.
Thedawn of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme, diastase ( today called amylase), in 1833 by anselme payen. Eduard Buchner contributed the first demonstration of a complexbiochemical process outside of a cell 1896: alcoholic fermentation in cell extracts of yeast. Although the term biochemistry seems to have been first used in 1882, it is generally accepted that the formalcoinage of biochemistry occurred in 1903 by Carl Newberg, a German chemist. Since then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques Such as...