Biotechnology

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  • Publicado : 15 de noviembre de 2010
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Biotechnology
What is it ?
It is the technology which is based on the biology, guided by the human necessities, it uses living organisms like living cells or components of the living organisms to get services for the humans and the environment. The biotechnology is divided in four branches: the biological engineering, bioinformatics, the bioremediation and the biodegradation.
The biotechnologyis nowadays being used in many areas including the agriculture, food process and energy production. The DNA in the fingerprints has turn in a common practice in the forensic medicine. The insulin production and other medicines accompanies across the vectors to the cloning to transport the chosen gene. The tests of immunity are used not only in levels of medicines and pregnancy tests, but also byfarmers to help to detect harmful levels of pesticides, herbicides and toxins in crops and in animal products.
These tests also provide rapid field proofs to industrial chemicals in underground waters, sediments and lands. In agriculture, the genetic engineering is being used to produce plants that could be resistant to the insects, herbs and diseases.

HISTORY
“Biotechnology” term was appliedin 1919 by Karl Ereky. He was a hungarian engineer. For this time, this term meant all work lines for which those products where made from the material lines with the help of living organisms. Ereky found a new age of biochemical that seemed to the age of stone and the steel age.
The human has manipulated living things to solve problems and to improve the way of life for millenniums. It takesthe agriculture to produce food, the plants and the animals are fed, and the microorganisms were used to do nourishing articles like drinks, cheese and bread.
At the end of the century 18 and at the beginning of the century 19 appears the vaccine. At the end of the century 19 it was a memorable fact of the biology. Microorganisms were discovered, and the work of Mendel in the genetic wassuccessful, and the institutes for the investigation of the fermentation and other process were established by Koch, Pasteur and Lister.
In the beginning of the 20th century the biotechnology began to mix the technology with the agriculture. During the First World War, the fermentation process was developed to produce the starch of the acetone and painting solvents for the growing of the self-propellingindustry. The work of the 30’s was impulse using the agriculture products to promote the industry of importations and petrochemicals.
With the Second World War the focus of the biotechnology changed toward the pharmaceutics. The years of the “cold war” was dominated by the work with microorganisms in preparation for the armament, like antibiotics and the fermentation process.

ADVANTAGES andDISADVANTAGES of the BIOTECHNOLOGY
Advantages
* The increase of the performance of the cultures on having manipulated positively the genetic material of the food. Also it can reduce the pesticides.
* The nutrition improvement, so they can introduce more nutrients, reduces the allergens and the natural toxins.
* Improve in the development of new materials, fewer pollutants,biodegradable and with fewer tailing in it production.
Disadvantages
For the health
* To Transfer toxins from one way of live to another one. To create new toxins or transfer allergic compounds from one species to another, that might give place to allergic unforeseen reactions.
* There is a risk that modified bacteria and virus can escape from the laboratories of high security and infect thehuman or animal community.
For the environment
* The possibility of crossed pollination, in which the pollen of the cultures that are genetically modified spreads to the cultures that are not genetically modified in nearly fields. This can develop an aggressive bush or wild relatives with more resistance to the diseases.
* Also can lose biodiversity, as a result of the displacement of...
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