Bioterrorism

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Twentieth Century
By the time World War I began, attempts to use anthrax were directed at animal populations. This generally proved to be ineffective. Shortly after the start of World War I, Germany launched a biological sabotage campaign in the United States, Russia, Romania, and France.[6] At that time, Anton Dilger lived in Germany, but in 1915 he was sent to the United States carryingcultures of glanders, a virulent disease of horses and mules. Dilger set up a laboratory in his home in Chevy Chase, Maryland. He used stevedores working the docks in Baltimore to infect horses with glanders while they were waiting to be shipped to Britain. Dilger was under suspicion as being a German agent, but was never arrested. Dilger eventually fled to Madrid, Spain, where he died during theInfluenza Pandemic of 1918.[7] In 1916, the Russians arrested a German agent with similar intentions. Germany and its allies infected French cavalry horses and many of Russia’s mules and horses on the Eastern Front. These actions hindered artillery and troop movements, as well as supply convoys.[6]
American biological weapon development began in 1942. President Franklin D. Roosevelt placed George W.Merck in charge of the effort to create a development program.[8] These programs continued until 1969, when by executive order President Richard Nixon shut down all programs related to American offensive use of biological weapons.[6]
US President Richard M. Nixon announced his new policy on biological warfare at a press conference in the Roosevelt Room of the White House on November 25, 1969.“Biological weapons have massive, unpredictable, and potentially uncontrollable consequences,” he declared. “They may produce global epidemics and impair the health of future generations.” He then stated the in recognition of these dangers, the United States had decided to destroy its entire stockpile of biological agents and confine its future biological research program to defensive measures, such asvaccines and field detectors.[9] As the 1970s passed, global efforts to prevent the development of biological weapons and their use were widespread.
On August 10, 1972, President Richard M. Nixon formally transmitted the Biological Weapons Convention to the United States Senate for ratification. In his transmittal, he states: "I am transmitting herewith, for the advice and consent of the Senate toratification, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons, and on their Destruction, opened for signature at Washington, London and Moscow on April 10, 1972. The text of this Convention is the result of some three years of intensive debate and negotiation at the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament atGeneva and at the United Nations. It provides that the Parties undertake not to develop, produce, stockpile, acquire or retain biological agents or toxins, of types and in quantities that have no justification for peaceful purposes, as well as weapons, equipment and means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict." [10]
[edit]Modernization
In 1972police in Chicago arrested two college students, Allen Schwander and Stephen Pera, who had planned to poison the city's water supply with typhoid and other bacteria. Schwander had founded a terrorist group, "R.I.S.E.", while Pera collected and grew cultures from the hospital where he worked. The two men fled to Cuba after being released on bail. Schwander died of natural causes in 1974, while Perareturned to the U.S. in 1975 and was put on probation.[11]
Since that time, efforts to use biological warfare has been more apparent in small radical organizations attempting to create fear in the eyes of large groups. Some efforts have been partially effective in creating fear, due to the lack of visibility associated with modern biological weapon use by small organizations.
1984 - USA -...
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