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ASIA IN THE AFTERMATH OF WWII

ASIA AFTER WWII
* WWII left Asia devastated and with millions of deaths
* Asians demanded
domestic reforms
&
national interdependence
* WWII altered the dominance in Asia:
* Japan: was in ruins and military occupied by the U.S.
* China: stood as one of the BIG FIVE victorious powers
* Foundingmember of the United Nations
* Permanent member of the Security Council
* The U.S. expected an allied in the pro-Western, strong and united China under the ruling of the KMT [Chian Kai-Shek]
* However, the war had mortally weakened the Nationalist Government
* Giving: new life & opportunities to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)

BACKGROUND: ASIA & THE COLD WARNorth Korea: Soviet occupation troops installed a communist government.
China: Chinese Communists victorious in the Civil War of 1949
The Communist Movement in Asia made new gains,
spreading to other Asian nations.
Threatened with the spread of Communism in Asia,
a worried U.S. looked for counter-measures.
Asia became a key theater of the Cold War

THE U.S OCCUPATION IN JAPAN
*The U.S. occupation in Japan from: 1945-1952
* Purpose: rebuilt Japan economically, and restructure its government
* This way,
[1] Japanese people would not find Communism attractive, and
[2] Japan would not disturb world peace again

THE TOKYO INTERNATIONAL COURT
1946 25 men were trialed and punished for wartime atrocities

THE U.S OCCUPATION IN JAPAN
* General DouglasMacArthur
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP)
Supervised the drafting of the New Japanese Constitution [1947]
* Yoshida Shigueru: Japanese Prime Minister [1945-1955]
Guided Japan toward recovery and rehabilitation in the postwar years.

DECOLNIZATION OF ASIA
WWII ended all empires in Asia
European countries were weakened by the two World Wars and could not hold back therising Asian Nationalism.
* 1946: the U.S. granted independence to the Philippines.
* 1947: Great Britain left India
Two new nations emerged:
India and Pakistan
* 1949: the Netherlands left Indonesia
* 1954: France parted from Indochina
* 1957: the British granted independence to Malaya
Which combined with other British colonies formed the Federation of Malaysia

THECREATION OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN
* July 1945: Clement Attlee became Prime Minister of Great Britain
* Declared his government intention to grant independence to India.

* August 1947: India became a sovereign nation.

* At the same time, peoples of the Muslim northwest & northeast declared their independence as the
new nation of Pakistan

THE CREATION OF INDIA ANDPAKISTAN
* Major riots and violence between Muslims and Hindus occurred
* Gandhi overtook missions on peace to the disturbed cities and villages in India
* January 30th, 1948: Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu extremist who believed that he had been too generous to the Muslims.

INDIA AND THE TERRITORY DISPUTES
INDIA VS PAKISTAN * Both claimed ownership over * KashmirPrincely State * Population: 80% Muslim * Hindu Prince joined India * 1947: India & Pakistan fought over Kashmir The UN imposed a cease-fire * 1965: India & Pakistan fought againCease-fire mediated by the Soviet Union | INDIA VS CHINA * 1962: war broke out between India & China * Over border disputesThe Chinese defeated the Indian Army and occupied sectionsof the Himalayas.The Chinese called for negotiations, but the border disputes were not settled. * Sino-Indian relations continued to be strained. |
FIRST INDOCHINA WAR

* France didn’t satisfy nationalistic aspirations in Indochina before WWII

* WWII: Vichy France surrendered Indochina to Japanese occupation peacefully

* 1945: Japan surrendered in WWII
* The Communist...
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