Brain facts

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Brain Facts
A PRIMER ON THE BR AIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM

THE SOCIET Y FOR NEUROSCIENCE

Brain Facts
A PRIMER ON THE BR AIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM THE SOCIET Y FOR NEUROSCIENCE

THE SOCIETY FOR NEUROSCIENCE

The Society for Neuroscience is the world’s largest organization of scientists and physicians dedicated to understanding the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.Neuroscientists investigate the molecular and cellular levels of the nervous system; the neuronal systems responsible for sensory and motor function; and the basis of higher order processes, such as cognition and emotion. This research provides the basis for understanding the medical fields that are concerned with treating nervous system disorders. These medical specialties include neurology, neurosurgery,psychiatry and ophthalmology. Founded in 1970, the Society has grown from 500 charter members to more than 29,000 members. Regular members are residents of Canada, Mexico and the United States—where more than 100 chapters organize local activities. The Society’s membership also includes many scientists from throughout the world, particularly Europe and Asia. The purposes of the Society are to: ∫Advance the understanding of the nervous system by bringing together scientists from various backgrounds and by encouraging research in all aspects of neuroscience. ∫ Promote education in the neurosciences. ∫ Inform the public about the results and implications of new research. The exchange of scientific information occurs at an annual fall meeting that presents more than 14,000 reports of newscientific findings and includes more than 25,000 participants. This meeting, the largest of its kind in the world, is the arena for the presentation of new results in neuroscience. The Society’s bimonthly journal, The Journal of Neuroscience, contains articles spanning the entire range of neuroscience research and has subscribers worldwide. A series of courses, workshops and symposia held at the annualmeeting promote the education of Society members. The Neuroscience Newsletter informs members about Society activities. A major mission of the Society is to inform the public about the progress and benefits of neuroscience research. The Society provides information about neuroscience to school teachers and encourages its members to speak to young people about the human brain and nervous system. Brain Facts

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 THE NEURON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Neurotransmitters ∫ Second Messengers
BRAIN DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Birth ofNeurons and Brain Wiring ∫ Paring Back ∫ Critical Periods
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Vision ∫ Hearing ∫ Taste and Smell ∫ Touch and Pain
LEARNING AND MEMORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 MOVEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 20 SLEEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

The Stu∑ of Sleep ∫ Sleep Disorders ∫ How is Sleep Regulated?
STRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

The Immediate Response ∫ Chronic Stress
AGING . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Aging Neurons ∫ Intellectual Capacity
ADVANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Parkinson’s Disease ∫ Pain ∫ Epilepsy ∫ Major Depression Manic-Depressive Illness
CHALLENGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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