Nutrition. 2005 May; 21(5):594-601.
Ingested cocoa can prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating the expression of genes for fatty acid metabolism.
Matsui N, Ito R, Nishimura E, Yoshikawa M, Kato M, Kamei M, Shibata H, Matsumoto I, Abe K, Hashizume S.
Research Institute, Morinaga & Co., Ltd., Kanagawa, Japan.email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: We previously found that ingested cocoa decreased visceral adipose tissue weight in rat. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of that effect, we carried out experiments aimed at analyzing biochemical parameters and gene expression profiles.
METHODS: Rats were fed either of two high-fat diets, differing only in supplementation with real ormimetic cocoa. On day 21, body weights, mesenteric white adipose tissue weights, and concentrations of serum triacylglycerol were measured. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of cocoa on lipid metabolism and triacylglycerol accumulation, we examined gene expression profiles in liver and mesenteric white adipose tissues using the GeneChip microarray system.
RESULTS:Final body weights and mesenteric white adipose tissue weights were significantly lower in rats fed the real cocoa diet than in those fed the mimetic cocoa diet (P<0.05), and serum triacylglycerol concentrations tended to be lower in rats fed the real cocoa diet (P=0.072). DNA microarray analysis showed that cocoa ingestion suppressed the expression of genes for enzymes involved in fatty acidsynthesis in liver and white adipose tissues. In white adipose tissue, cocoa ingestion also decreased the expression of genes for fatty acid transport-relating molecules, whereas it upregulated the expression of genes for uncoupling protein-2 as a thermogenesis factor.
CONCLUSIONS: Ingested cocoa can prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity by modulating lipid metabolism, especially by decreasingfatty acid synthesis and transport systems, and enhancement of part of the thermogenesis mechanism in liver and white adipose tissue.
PMID: 15850966 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
International Journal of Obesity (2008) 32, 1289–1296; doi:10.1038/ijo.2008.66; published online 27 May 2008
Effect of cocoa flavanols and exercise oncardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese subjects
K. Davison, A. M. Coates, J. D. Buckley and P. R. C. Howe
1. School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
2. Nutritional Physiology Research Centre, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
3. ATN Centre forMetabolic Fitness, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Correspondence: Professor PRC Howe, ATN Centre for Metabolic Fitness, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 4 November 2007; revised 12 February 2008; Accepted 19 March2008; Published online 27 May 2008.
Objective: Impaired endothelial function in obesity may reduce blood flow to sites of metabolism, contributing to impaired fat oxidation and insulin resistance. This study investigated the effects of cocoa flavanols and regular exercise, interventions known to improve endothelial function, on cardiometabolic function and body composition in obeseindividuals.
Design: Overweight and obese adults were randomly assigned to high-flavanol cocoa (HF, 902 mg flavanols), HF and exercise, low-flavanol cocoa (LF, 36 mg flavanols), or LF and exercise for 12 weeks (exercise duration was 3 × 45 min per week at 75% of age-predicted maximum heart rate). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0 and 12 weeks. Brachial artery...