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ECOLOGY WORKSHEET FOR ENGLISH CLASS TO DO IT USING COMPUTERS & INTERNET

Lesson - Food Chains and Webs --- "What's for dinner?"
Every organism needs to obtain energy in order to live. For example, plants get energy from the sun, some animals eat plants, and some animals eat other animals.
A food chain is the sequence of who eats whom in a biological community (an ecosystem) to obtainnutrition. A food chain starts with the primary energy source, usually the sun or boiling-hot deep sea vents. The next link in the chain is an organism that make its own food from the primary energy source -- an example is photosynthetic plants that make their own food from sunlight (using a process called photosynthesis) and chemosynthetic bacteria that make their food energy from chemicals inhydrothermal vents. These are called autotrophs or primary producers.
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Next come organisms that eat the autotrophs; these organisms are called herbivores or primary consumers -- an example is a rabbit that eats grass. The next link in the chain is animals that eat herbivores - these are called secondary consumers -- an example is a snake that eat rabbits. In turn, these animals are eaten bylarger predators -- an example is an owl that eats snakes. The tertiary consumers are eaten by quaternary consumers -- an example is a hawk that eats owls. Each food chain end with a top predator, and animal with no natural enemies (like an alligator, hawk, or polar bear).

The arrows in a food chain show the flow of energy, from the sun or hydrothermal vent to a top predator. As the energyflows from organism to organism, energy is lost at each step. A network of many food chains is called a food web.

Trophic Levels:
The trophic level of an organism is the position it holds in a food chain.
1. Primary producers (organisms that make their own food from sunlight and/or chemical energy from deep sea vents) are the base of every food chain - these organisms are calledautotrophs.
2. Primary consumers are animals that eat primary producers; they are also called herbivores (plant-eaters).
3. Secondary consumers eat primary consumers. They are carnivores (meat-eaters) and omnivores (animals that eat both animals and plants).
4. Tertiary consumers eat secondary consumers.
5. Quaternary consumers eat tertiary consumers.
6. Food chains "end" with toppredators, animals that have little or no natural enemies.
When any organism dies, it is eventually eaten by detrivores (like vultures, worms and crabs) and broken down by decomposers (mostly bacteria and fungi), and the exchange of energy continues.
Some organisms' position in the food chain can vary as their diet differs. For example, when a bear eats berries, the bear is functioning as aprimary consumer. When a bear eats a plant-eating rodent, the bear is functioning as a secondary consumer. When the bear eats salmon, the bear is functioning as a tertiary consumer (this is because salmon is a secondary consumer, since salmon eat herring that eat zooplankton that eat phytoplankton, that make their own energy from sunlight). Think about how people's place in the food chain varies -often within a single meal!
Numbers of Organisms:
In any food web, energy is lost each time one organism eats another. Because of this, there have to be many more plants than there are plant-eaters. There are more autotrophs than heterotrophs, and more plant-eaters than meat-eaters. Each level has about 10% less energy available to it because some of the energy is lost as heat at each level.Although there is intense competition between animals, there is also interdependence. When one species goes extinct, it can affect an entire chain of other species and have unpredictable consequences.
Equilibrium
As the number of carnivores in a community increases, they eat more and more of the herbivores, decreasing the herbivore population. It then becomes harder and harder for the...
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