Canada (pronounced / kænədə / and French / kanada /) is a federal constitutional monarchy in America, located in the far north of North America. It stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to theeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and north to the Arctic Ocean, sharing border with the United States to the south and northwest Alaska with their status. It is the second largest country in theworld after Russia, and also the northernmost. Occupies about half of North America.
The land occupied by Canada was inhabited by various groups of Aboriginal people for millennia. From the latefifteenth century, British and French expeditions numerous along explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Frenchand Indian War.
In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces.   This started a collection ofprovinces and territories and a process of autonomy with the United Kingdom. This increasing autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canadian ConstitutionAct of 1982, which broke the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
The first inhabitants of the region were diverse peoples from Siberia, whocame across the Bering Strait, and a little later came the last Inuit (Eskimos) from Asia.
The natural wealth of the region attracted the attention of Europeans. Among them were Henry Hudson JohnCabot, Jacques Cartier, who gave the name to Canada, and his compatriot Samuel Champlain who was known as the Father of New France for his work in founding colonies that grew along the St. Lawrence River,Quebec City to Montreal.
The rivalry between the French and British grew after the founding of the British Company of Hudson Bay in 1670. Differences were resolved by civil wars between the...