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Prepared at the 55th JECFA (2000) and published in FNP 52 Add 8 (2000),
superseding specifications prepared at the 44th JECFA (1995) and
published in FNP 52 Add 3 (1995). Metals andarsenic specifications revised
at the 59th JECFA (2002). A group ADI of 0-5 mg/kg bw for carmines, as
ammonium carmine or the equivalent of Ca, K and Na salts was established
at the 26th JECFA (1982)and maintained at the 55th JECFA (2000).
SYNONYMS Cochineal carmine, Carmine, CI Natural Red 4, CI (1975) No. 75470; INS
No. 120
DEFINITION Obtained by aqueous extraction of cochineal, which consistsof the dried
bodies of the female insect Dactylopius coccus Costa; the colouring principle
is a hydrated aluminium chelate of carminic acid in which aluminium and
carminic acid are thought to bepresent in the molar ratio 1:2.
In commercial products the colouring principle is present in association with
ammonium, calcium, potassium or sodium cations, singly or in combination,
and thesecations may also be present in excess. Products may also contain
proteinaceous material derived from the source insect, and may also contain
free carminate or a small excess of aluminium cations.Chemical names Hydrated aluminium chelate of carminic acid (7-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-
3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid)
C.A.S. number 1390-65-4 (carmine)
1260-17-9(carminic acid)
Chemical formula Carminic acid: C22H20O13
Structural formula Carminic acid:
Possible structural formula for the aluminium complex of carminic acid:
M+: cation ½ Ca++, Na+, K+, NH4
+Formula weight Carminic acid: 492.39
Assay Not less than 50% of C22H20O13 on the dry basis
DESCRIPTION Red to dark red, crumbly solid or powder
Solubility (Vol. 4) The solubility of carmine preparations varies depending on the nature of the
cations present. Products where the major cation is ammonium (ammonium
carminate) are freely...
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