The First World War shattered the European political order. An entire generation of young men had died in brutal trench warfare. No other war had changed the map of Europe so dramatically. Four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and the Russian and numerous national groups that had previously been under their control seized the chance todeclare independence. Socialism erupted as a major political force thanks to the Russian revolutions, while Imperialism began to fall out of vogue. The Allied Powers Britain and France, though victors, were exhausted and nearly bankrupt. The United States, which had kept Britain and France from collapsing by sending both armies and financial assistance, rapidly withdrew itself from Europeanaffairs after the conflict was over. The war had profound economic consequences. Of the 60 million European soldiers who were mobilized from 1914–1918, 8 million were killed, 7 million were permanently disabled, and 15 million were seriously injured.
The society of every warring European nation changed: in Britain the class system altered as the lower class consciousness evolved; in France, ageneration of men was lost; in Eastern Europe people found themselves in new young nations. Defeated Germany, disappointed Italy, and ambitious Japan were anxious to increase their power; all three eventually adopted forms of dictatorship.
This cultural impact of the war is the aspect most obviously still with us. Poets, writers and other people capable of expressing their experienceshave left a body of passionate, dark and stirring work which has dominated our popular memory. For most in the West, The First War One conjures up images of muddy trenches, thousands of young men walking into machine gun fire and the sense of wasted youth. World War One is seen as a waste. The physical injuries suffered by soldiers from gas and shell fed the imaginations of the 1920's and 30'scinematic horror boom; there are relatively few films about The Great War, but plenty fed by its consequences.
As a result of World War I, socialistic ideas experienced a boom as they spread not only in Germany and the Austrian empire but also made advances in Britain (1923) and France (1924). However, the most popular type of government to gain influence after World War Iwas the republic. Before the war, Europe contained 19 monarchies and 3 republics, yet only a few years afterward, had 13 monarchies, 14 republics and 2 regencies. Evidently, revolution was in the air and people began to more ardently express their desires for a better way of life.
Causes and events leading to WW2:
●The treaty of Versailles:
In 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy,Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson from the US met to discuss how Germany was to be made to pay for the damage world war one had caused. Germany had been expecting a treaty based on Wilson's 14 points and were not happy with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. However, they had no choice but to sign the document. The German people were very unhappy about the treaty and thought that it wastoo harsh. Germany could not afford to pay the money and during the 1920s the people in Germany were very poor. There were not many jobs and the price of food and basic goods was high. People were dissatisfied with the government and voted to power a man(Adolf Hitler) who promised to rip up the Treaty of Versailles. This treaty severely hurt Germany, not only because they have to pay for thedamages, but also they lost lands and were forced to lose %16 of its coal lands and half of its iron and steel industries. This angered Germany and as a result they wanted to take revenge.
●Failure of Appeasement:
During the 1930s, many politicians in both Britain and France came to see that the terms of the Treaty of Versailles had placed restrictions on Germany that were unfair. Hitler's...