Rubin, J., & Thompson, I., How to be a more successful language learner. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 1982.
1. Good languagelearners find their own way and take charge of their learning. They determine the methods that are
best for them as individual learners. They learn form others and experiment with different methods.2. Good language learners organize their study of the language, and they organize information about the language they
3. Good language learners are creative. They understandthat language is creative. They experiment with the language and
play with grammar, words, and sounds.
4. Good language learners make their own opportunities for practicing the languageinside and outside of the classroom.
5. Good language learners learn to live with uncertainty by focusing on the meaning of what they can understand, by not
getting flustered, and bycontinuing to talk or listen without necessarily understanding every word.
6. Good language learners use mnemonics and other memory strategies to recall what they are learning.
7. Good languagelearners make errors work for them and not against them.
8. Good language learners use linguistic knowledge, including knowledge of their first language, in learning a second
9. Good language learners use contextual clues to aid their comprehension of the language. They maximize use of all
potential contexts around the language attended to for enhancingcomprehension.
10. Good language learners learn to make intelligent guesses.
11. Good language learners learn chunks of language as wholes and formalized routines to help them perform
beyondtheir competence. For example, they may learn idioms, proverbs, or other phrases knowing what the whole
phrase means without necessarily understanding each individual part.