Food Chemistry 107 (2008) 592–601 www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchem
Characterization of pinon seed (Araucaria araucana (Mol) K. Koch) ˜ and the isolated starch from the seed
´ Carolina Henrıquez a,*, Berta Escobar b, Fernando Figuerola c, Italo Chiﬀelle b, ´ ´ ´ Hernan Speisky d, Ana Marıa Estevez b,*
a Doctorate Program,Universidad de Chile, Chile ´ ´ Departamento de Agroindustria y Enologıa, Facultad de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidad de Chile, Chile c ´ Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologıa de Alimentos, Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile d ´ ´ Instituto de Nutricion y Tecnologıa de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Chile b
Received 3 February 2007; received in revised form 20 June2007; accepted 14 August 2007
Abstract Araucaria (Araucaria araucana) is a conifer tree, endemic of Chile. The seed of this tree, named pinon are composed principally of ˜ starch. In this work, pinon seeds and the starch isolated from them were evaluated. The pinon seeds are composed of starch (64%), die˜ ˜ tary ﬁbre (25%), total sugar (7%) and very low concentrations of phenolic compounds,lipids, proteins and crude ﬁbre. The process performed to isolate the starch from pinon was simple and easy to realize at laboratory scale, with a yield of 36%. Starch represents a 77% of ˜ the isolated starch. The amylose content was 42%. Lipids, protein and crude ﬁbre were very low. The starch hydration properties increased with the temperature. In the 6% suspension of starch, viscosity increasesduring the cooling period. The starch granules of pinon were small and round shaped. The aspects evaluated in this research, suggests that pinon seeds can be considered an interesting ˜ ˜ new starch source for the food industry. Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Araucaria araucana; Pinon seeds; Starch; Technological properties; Functional properties; SEM ˜
1. IntroductionAraucaria (Araucaria araucana (Mol) K. Koch) (common name Araucaria or Pehuen in the mapuche language) is a conifer tree, endemic of Chile and Argentina (Hoﬀmann, 1991). The natural distribution is relatively limited ranging from latitude 37°200 to 40°200 S (Herrmann, 2005). There are two centres of distribution: the Andes Cordillera, which constitutes the main growing area (37°300 to 40°020 S) and thecoastal Cordillera of Nahuelbuta (between 37°200 and 38°400 S) (Herrmann, 2005; Hoﬀmann, 1991).
* ´ Corresponding authors. Address: Facultad de Ciencias Agronomicas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 1004, Santiago, Chile. Fax: +56 2 540 7755. ´ E-mail addresses: email@example.com (C. Henrıquez), aestevez@ ´ uchile.cl (A.M. Estevez).
The seed of this tree, named ‘‘pinon” has constituted ˜ animportant source of carbohydrates for the native people that live in the south of Chile (Pehuenches). Pinon is ˜ eaten raw, boiled or toasted. It is also provide the material for the ‘‘mudai”, a typical alcoholic beverage, used in indigenous ceremonies, and often ground into ﬂour to be used as an ingredient in soups or to make bread (Aagesen, 2004; Cardemil & Reinero, 1982; Herrmann, 2005). Pinon hasoblong and cuneiform shape; and the color of ˜ their outer coat is reddish. The size is between 3.5 and 4.5 cm in length; 1.2 and 2.0 cm of diameter and the weight is between 3.5 and 3.8 g. Pinon kernel has a very resistant ˜ coat named ‘‘testa” and a thin internal membrane named ‘‘endopleura”. Inside is localized the white endosperm ´ and in the middle of it, the polycotyledon embryo (Estevez,1993).
0308-8146/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.08.040
´ C. Henrıquez et al. / Food Chemistry 107 (2008) 592–601
Pinon has low contents of lipids (2.3–2.6%) and proteins ˜ (9.6–10.6%) (Schmidt-Hebbel, Pennacchiotti, Masson, & Mella, 1992). However, the starch is the most important compound (60–61% of the dry weight)...