China

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CHINA

The demographics of the People's Republic of China are identified by a large population with a relatively small youth division, which is partially a result of the People's Republic ofChina's one-child policy. Today, China's population is over 1.3 billion, the largest of any country in the world.
The yuan (¥) is the base unit of a number of modern Chinese currencies. 1 USD = 6.466¥Culture
Confucianism was the official philosophy throughout most of Imperial China's history, and mastery of Confucian texts was the primary criterion for entry into the imperial bureaucracy. China'straditional values were derived from various versions of Confucianism. A number of more authoritarian strains of thought have also been influential, such as Legalism.
There was often conflict betweenthe philosophies, e.g. the Song Dynasty Neo-Confucians believed Legalism departed from the original spirit of Confucianism. Examinations and a culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today. Inrecent years, a number of New Confucians have advocated that democratic ideals and human rights are quite compatible with traditional Confucian "Asian values".
With the rise of European economic andmilitary power beginning in the mid-19th century, non-Chinese systems of social and political organization gained adherents in China. Some of these would-be reformers totally rejected China'scultural legacy, while others sought to combine the strengths of Chinese and European cultures. In essence, the history of 20th-century China is one of experimentation with new systems of social, political,and economic organization that would allow for the reintegration of the nation in the wake of dynastic collapse.
Calligraphy has remained a potent force in Chinese life up to the present. During theSong, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties, calligraphy continued to be a central art of the literati, closely associated both with painting and with the social and cultural life of the educated elite....
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