Chinese dynasties

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  • Publicado : 10 de mayo de 2010
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A dynasty is a succession of people belonging to the same family, who, through various means and forms maintain power, influence or authority over the course of generations Chinese history is not as neat as is often described and it is one full of history, culture and wars that took place along of the different dynasties that ruled China. A ruler in a dynasty is sometimesreferred to as a dynast, but this term is also used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains succession rights to a throne. The following essay will describe the dynasties in Chinese history. You will have the opportunity to see how these dynasties contributed to the unification of China and how they changed the Chinese history for ever.

The Shang dynasty is considered by most to bethe first dynasty in China. The Shang dynasty ruled parts of northern and central China. This dynasty was based on agriculture; millet, wheat, and barley were the primary crops grown. They also rose: crops, silkworms, pigs, dogs, sheep, and oxen. For this era were also found Bronze ships, weapons, and other kind of tools. The Shang dynasty was an aristocratic society, with a king ruling over themilitary nobility. Territorial rulers were appointed by him in return for their support in his military campaigns. There is evidence that indicates that under the Shang dynasty many cities were constructed around the eastern parts of The Yellow River. The Shang also unified China though religion. The Shang worshipped a figure called Shang Ti. This god ruled other gods as the sun, the moon and othernatural forces. This god regulated human affairs. One of the most important technological developments of the Shang was the invention of writing. Shang dynasty left a large number of written records. Inscriptions on bronze and on the oracle bones still survive. Although the Shang dynasty was one of changes and innovations is not until the Zhou dynasty that the Chinese civilization was expanded.The Zhou dynasty originated from the Zhou clan. The Zhou dynasty was the longest dynasty in Chinese history. It lasted for over 800 years and included the reigns of 37 emperors. According to historians Zhou dynasty was divided in two periods: the Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century BC to 771 BC) and the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770 BC - 221 BC). The Zhou dynasty had a great impact into Chinesesociety. During this dynasty China lived economical, political, scientific and cultural changes never seen before. During this reign China evolved from a feudal state to one with a centralized government.
The Zhou dynasty was basically based on agriculture. A new way to administer lands was implemented. Although the division of the lands was unclear, it was the most equitable way to dealing withland distribution. The Iron Age brought some new techniques to work these lands. Engineering technology for irrigation, drainage, waterways, canals, dikes and dams were implemented. At the same time these new techniques increased Chinese population, which started to trade. This new style of life required new ways of communication. The horseback communication system was expanded and thecommunication was better than before. Thanks to these measures the Zhou Empire was expanded into non-Chinese countries. This had a great cultural impact. They became more diversified and adopted new aspects to their culture. One such aspect was the mounted cavalry. Before, Chinese fights were by foot soldiers. Science does not stay back. The perfection of the calendar, observation of the sky, geographicalmaps, description of arithmetic and methods like acupuncture, among many others, were seen during the Zhou dynasty. Although the Zhou dynasty set in motion the first unification of China is not until the Qin dynasty that great changes were seen.

Qin dynasty ruled China between 221 and 206 B.C. During this reign China lived many significant changes. Although it lasted for only 7 years, the...
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