Manuel Rojas organized the Separatist Party and pledged to create the independent Republic of Puerto Rico as part of an uprising known as the Grito de Lares ("The Cry of Lares"). His plantation in the town of Lares became the headquarters for like-minded revolutionaries who would push for a split from Spain.
The Spanish provincial government in Puerto Rico establishedthe Liberal Reform Party and the Liberal Conservative Party as the first true political organizations. The Liberal Conservatives opposed any movement for reform while debate raged among the Liberal Reformers between those who sought to be as much like Spain as possible and those who sought autonomy from the mother country.
The Spanish Crown abolished slavery in Puerto Rico.
Ramón Baldorioty de Castro formed the Autonomous Party that tried to create a political and legal identity for Puerto Rico while emulating Spain in all political matters.
U.S. foreign policy is influenced by Alfred T. Mahan who wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon history, 1660-1783 which advocated the taking of the Caribbean Islands, Hawaii, and the Philippine Islands for bases toprotected U.S. commerce, the building of a canal to enable fleet movement from ocean to ocean, and the building of the Great White fleet of steam-driven armor plated battleships.
U.S. President Grover Cleveland proclaimed U.S. neutrality in the Cuban Insurrection.
The U.S. Senate recognized Cuban belligerency when it passed overwhelmingly the joint John T.Morgan/Donald Cameron resolution calling for recognition of Cuban belligerency and Cuban independence. This resolution signaled to President Cleveland and Secretary of State Richard Olney that the Cuban crisis needed attention.
The U.S. House of Representatives passed decisively its own version of the Morgan-Cameron Resolution which called for the recognition of Cuban belligerency.August 9
Great Britain foiled Spain's attempt to organize European support for Spanish policies in Cuba.
U.S. President Grover Cleveland declared that the U.S. might take action in Cuba if Spain failed to resolve the crisis there.
William Warren Kimball, U.S. Naval Academy graduate and intelligence officer, completed a strategic study of the implications of war with Spain. Hisplan called for an operation to free Cuba through naval action, which included blockade, attacks on Manila, and attacks on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.
Both William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer's New York World, through its sensational reporting on the Cuban Insurrection, helped strengthen anti-Spanish sentiment in the United States. On this datethe execution of Cuban rebel Adolfo Rodríguez by a Spanish firing squad, was reported in the article "Death of Rodríguez" in the New York Journal by Richard Harding Davis. On October 8, 1897, Karl Decker of the New York Journal reported on the rescue of Cuban Evangelina Cisneros from a prison on the Isle of Pines.
Inauguration of U.S. President William McKinley.
August 8Anarchist Miguel Angiolillo Assassinated Spanish Prime Minister Antonio Cánovas del Castillo at Santa Agueda, Spain. Práxides Mateo Sagasta became prime minister of Spain.
Bowing to U.S. pressure to improve its relationships with its colonies, Spain, under the leadership of Prime Minister Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, agreed to an autonomous constitution for Puerto Rico. It allowed the islandto retain its representation in the Spanish Cortes, and provided for a bicameral legislature. This legislature consisted of a Council of Administration with eight elected and seven appointed members, and a Chamber of Representatives with one member for every 25,000 inhabitants.
Spain granted limited autonomy to Cuba.
Enrique Dupuy de Lôme resigned as Ambassador...
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