Ciencas de la vida

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Health Science Guide
Anatomical Position
Mid-sagittal plane: divides the body into equal left and right sides.
Parasagittal plane: parallel to mid-sagittal and divides the body into unequal leftand right sides.
Coronal plane: divides into anterior and posterior.
Transverse plane: divides into superior and inferior.
Description of the anatomical position: body is erect, facing forward, armsin the sides with palms facing forward, and feet flat on the floor facing forward.
The Skin
Structure

Need to know:
Hair
Hair follicle
Hair muscle (arector pili)
Oil gland (sebaceous)Sensory receptor
Sweat gland (sudoriferous)
Epidermis made of: stratified squamous epithelial tissue
Dermis made of: loose fibrous connective tissue
Functions
Synthetizes vitamin D
ProtectionThermoregulation
Awareness of surroundings
Cells in the epidermis
Keratinocytesàkeratin: prevents water loss
Melanocytesàmelanin: protects against UV rays
The Skeletal System
The Long Bone

Spongyboneàred bone marrow: blood cells
Growth plate
Compact bone
Medullary cavityàyellow bone marrow: fat
Perosteum: the covering of the bone
Articular cartilage
Diaphysis
Epiphysis

The SkeletonAxial (center) skeleton: skull, facial bones, ossicles, hyoid bone, sternum, ribs, and vertebrate. (blue part)
Appendicular (sides) skeleton: upper and lower limbs, pectoral girdle, and pelvicgirdle. (beige part)
Examples of...
Long boneàhumerus
Short boneàcarpals
Irregular boneàvertebral
Round boneàpatella
Flat boneàskull
Function
Support
Protection of organs
Production of bloodcells
Storage of fat
Storage of minerals
Movement/shape
Cells of bones:
Osteoblasts/osteocytes: build up bone tissue.
Osteoclasts: break down bone tissue.
Disorders of the skeletal systemOsteoporosis: loss of bone mass; caused by: age, lack of exercise, bad diet, cancer, etc.
Osteoarthritis: inflammation of joints/ degeneration of the articular cartilage; causes pain and lack of...
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