EXERCISE ON THE CELL
See page 48 Table 3.1 in textbook.
1) Give the differences between Prokaryote and Eukaryote cells.
• Examples: simple cells which are bacteria
• Noorganelles. (organelles mean structures enclosed by membranes)
• No nucleus, no nuclear membrane
• Examples: complex cells which are plant cells, animal cells
• Has organelles
• Nucleus withnuclear membrane
2) Give the similarities between Prokaryote and Eukaryote cells.
• Cell membrane, ribosome and cytoskeleton
3) Give the differences between Plant and Animal cells. See page 49Table 3.2, page 50 Fig. 3.4 and 51 Fig. 3.5 in textbook.
Plant cells have chloroplast,cell wall and very big vacuole which are not found in animal cells.
4) Give the function for the following partsof the cell. See page 49 Table 3.2 in textbook.
a) cell wall: cell wall protects the cell
b) cell (plasma) membrane: cell (plasma) membrane allows molecules to enter and to leave cell.
c) nuclearmembrane: nuclear membrane protects DNA and surrounds the nucleus. ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬
d) Nucleolus: Nucleolus has RNA
e) nucleus : nucleus has DNA
f) Golgi body: Golgi body stores proteins and fatsg) rough endoplasmic reticulum: rough endoplasmic reticulum as ribosome and make proteins
h) smooth endoplasmic reticulum: smooth endoplasmic reticulum make lipids
i) ribosome: ribosome makeproteins
j) mitochondria: mitochondria transform food molecules (glucose) into energy (ATP). This is cellular respiration
k) Chloroplast: chloroplast makes sugar (glucose) which is photosynthesis(plants)
l) Lysosome: has enzymes to digest wastes or cells
m) Centrioles: are used for mitosis or reproduction of cells
n) Vacuoles: store sugars like starch
o) Cytoskeleton: supports and gives shapeto the cell
4. Similarities between plant and animal cells
Organelles like nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, nuclear membrane, cell maembrance (all organelles except cell wall, vacuole,...
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