Community Corrections are non prison sanctions that are imposed on convicted adults or adjudicated juveniles either by a court instead of a prison sentence or by aparole board following release from prison. Community corrections programs are usually operated by probation and parole agencies and the programs can include general community supervision as well asday reporting centers, halfway houses and other residential facilities, work release, and other community programs. All community corrections programs have the multiple goals of providing offenderaccountability, delivering rehabilitation services and surveillance, and achieving fiscal efficiency.
The community nature of corrections receded in importance with the rise of the American versionof the penitentiary. Yet, in the middle in the nineteenth century, probation began with the volunteer services of John Augustus in Massachusetts. Following its beginnings as a voluntary movement,probation experienced rapid growth in the first decades of the twentieth century and in the 1960s. The social context of the 1960s was such that widespread support was given to the rehabilitative ideal,spurring the development of new forms of community based corrections programs.
The new challenge of corrections was seen as keeping offenders in the community and reintegrating them intocommunity living. It was believed that because prisons dehumanize people and prepare inmates for lives of criminality, every effort should be made to keep offenders out of long term institutions. Theincreasing probation population inspired state governments to reorganize and support probation initiatives, and the device they used was community corrections acts that is a law passed by a state legislaturein which a state grants funds to local units of government to plan, develop, and deliver correctional services and sanctions.
Ideally, programs would be involved in all three types of...