Como construir un robot

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  • Publicado : 16 de junio de 2011
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For all people como ioo
Materials needed
It used to be a hassle to buy the materials, because not one single webshop was carrying everything needed, and you had to buy from several shops.
Good news is that LMR have started a cooperation with Solarbotics, one click get's you all the parts:
You can get everything needed for the project here, in "The LMR Bundle"
- And if you buy it there, youeven support us, so we can keep hosting
Everything you need can also be found in webshops, and via Google, if you do not want to buy the LMR bundle. And as it is sold in webshops, you can get it where you are, in any country.
No matter from where you get it, the following is what you will need:
(The following is all included in the bundle)1 PICAXE-28 Project Board
The 28 pin project board is like a game of Mario Bros; Fun and full of extras and hidden features, making you want to play over and again. It is an extremely good board to get you started, and it can be used for a fantacillion different projects, don't get me started :)

Male "snap off" Header Pins,at least 10 pins on a strip
Many times the boards that you buy just have holes in them, and that makes it hard to plug something in / on. One way to overcome this, is to solder wires into the holes. Another is to add these pins, so you can plug on wires, like with the servo and female headers shown below. "Why don't they just put pins in all the holes from the factory", you may ask. Well, I don'tknow. Maybe to give us the option. It is also possible to solder female headers onto the board, perhaps this is why.
You get these in long rows, and simply break them apart with your fingers.

3 Shorting Blocks, Top Closed
Put these over 2 pins next to each other, and there is a connection between them!

5 or more Female-Female Header Jumper cables
Yes. These are nice. When Istarted this hobby a couple of years ago, these where really hard to get. Now they are everywhere, and that is really good. Most things in this new robot-hobby of yours have pins (or you solder some in ;) - and by using these jumpers, you can make quick connections without soldering. Nice!

1 USB PICAXE Programming Cable
You write your robots programs on your computer. Plug this cable into therobot, and transfer the program. Unplug, and the robot runs the program by itself.

This chip is a Microprocessor. That is often explained as "A computer in a chip". It can be placed in the board described above, after that, it can be programmed from your computer via the programming cable.

Your program can tell the controller to "listen for inputs", "think about them",perhaps make some calculations or look in some datas, and make outputs to something like the motor driver below.

It is chosen here, because it is quite strong, yet very easy to program, as you will see below.

1 L293D Motor Driver IC
I will describe this later, when we install it below :)

1 DIL 330 x 8 resistor array
The Yellow chip! It is very dull, just a row of little resistors. Youwill be using it to set your board up for servos.

1 Standard servo
A Servo is a cornerstone in most robotic appliances. To put it short it is a little box with wires to it, and a shaft that can turn some 200 degrees, from side to side.
The microcontroller can decide to where the shaft should turn, and stay there. Like go to "3 o'clock". That is it pretty handy; You can program something tophysically move to a certain position. Next thing (after this project) could be to let one servo lift another servo. You would then have what is referred to as 2 DOF ("Degrees of Freedom"). But let's start with one ;)

You may wonder why my servo has that white pin, where yours might have a flat disc, a cross, or something. It does not matter, servos comes with all kinds of "servo horns". We...