Competitividad global

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Insight Report

The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013
Klaus Schwab, World Economic Forum

Insight Report

The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013
Full Data Edition

Professor Klaus Schwab World Economic Forum Editor Professor Xavier Sala-i-Martín Columbia University Chief Advisor of The Global Benchmarking Network

© 2012 World Economic Forum

The Global CompetitivenessReport 2012–20013: Full Data Edition is published by the World Economic Forum within the framework of The Global Benchmarking Network.

World Economic Forum Geneva Copyright © 2012 by the World Economic Forum All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, orotherwise without the prior permission of the World Economic Forum. ISBN-13: 978-92-95044-35-7 ISBN-10: 92-95044-35-5 This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. Printed and bound in Switzerland by SRO-Kundig. The Report and an interactive data platform are available at www.weforum.org/gcr.

Professor Klaus Schwab Executive ChairmanProfessor Xavier Sala-i-Martín Chief Advisor of The Global Benchmarking Network Børge Brende Managing Director, Government Relations and Constituents Engagement

THE GLOBAL BENCHMARKING NETWORK

Jennifer Blanke, Senior Director, Lead Economist, Head of The Global Benchmarking Network Beñat Bilbao-Osorio, Associate Director, Senior Economist Ciara Browne, Associate Director Roberto Crotti,Quantitative Economist Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Director, Senior Economist, Head of Competitiveness Research Brindusa Fidanza, Associate Director, Environmental Initiatives Thierry Geiger, Associate Director, Economist Tania Gutknecht, Community Manager Caroline Ko, Junior Economist Cecilia Serin, Team Coordinator

We thank Hope Steele for her excellent editing work and Neil Weinberg for hissuperb graphic design and layout. We are grateful to Annabel Guinault for her invaluable research assistance. The terms country and nation as used in this report do not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The terms cover well-defined, geographically self-contained economic areas that may not be states but for which statistical dataare maintained on a separate and independent basis.

© 2012 World Economic Forum

Contents

Partner Institutes Preface
by Klaus Schwab

v xiii

Part 2: Data Presentation
2.1 Country/Economy Profiles

79
81

How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles ..................................83 Index of Countries/Economies ........................................................85Country/Economy Profiles ..............................................................86

Part 1: Measuring Competitiveness
1.1 The Global Competitiveness Index 2012–2013: Strengthening Recovery by Raising Productivity
by Xavier Sala-i-Martín, Beñat Bilbao-Osorio, Jennifer Blanke, Roberto Crotti, Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Thierry Geiger, and Caroline Ko

1
3

2.2 Data Tables

375

How toRead the Data Tables .......................................................377 Index of Data Tables .....................................................................379 Data Tables ..................................................................................381

Technical Notes and Sources About the Authors

519 523 527

1.2 Assessing the Sustainable Competitiveness of Nations
byBeñat Bilbao-Osorio, Jennifer Blanke, Roberto Crotti, Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Brindusa Fidanza, Thierry Geiger, Caroline Ko, and Cecilia Serin

49 Acknowledgments

1.3 The Executive Opinion Survey: The Voice of the Business Community
by Ciara Browne, Thierry Geiger, and Tania Gutknecht

69

The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 | iii
© 2012 World Economic Forum

© 2012 World...
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